Chemistry Chapter 1

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Chemistry Chapter 1
2015-01-28 22:02:02
chemistry chapter sacco

sacco chemistry chapter 1
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  1. 4 states of matter
    • plasma
    • solid
    • liquid
    • gas
  2. solids s
    • particles held closely together in fixed motion
    • little motion (vibrate)
    • don't conform
  3. liquid l
    • particles held closely but NOT in fixed position 
    • move freely
    • conform to container
  4. gas g
    • particles not held together, separated by large distances 
    • move FAST
    • take shape and volume of container
  5. qualitative vs quantitative
    quantitative - measured number (ie boiling point, melting point)

    qualitative - measurement not required (ie color and size)
  6. properties of matter

    chemical vs physical
    • 1. physical property - observed w/o changing. Doesn't change identity (ie color, size, shape, texture)
    • 2. chemical property - observed when chemical change happens and you have a NEW substance
  7. extensive vs intensive property
    extensive - depends on amount (ie mass, volume, length)

    intensive - doesn't depend on amount (ie density, temp)
  8. element
    can't be broken down into simpler substances
  9. compound
    combination of 2 or more elements (ie h2o)

    can't be broken down or separated further PHYSICALLY (filter, evaporation, heating) but can via chemical process
  10. mixture
    combination of 2 or more substances that are solid, liquid or gas
  11. types of mixtures
    homo and hetero
    homogeneous - uniform composition throughout

    heterogeneous - nonuniform composition throughout
  12. scientific measurements
    • mass kilo
    • legnth meter
    • temperature kelvin
    • time second
    • amount mole
    • electric current ampere
    • luminous intensity candela
  13. density

  14. uncertainty of measurement

    2 types
    exact - countable and/or defined 

    inexact - cannot be determined by counting, depends on accuracy of measurements
  15. sig figs
    take care of uncertainty
  16. Sig Fig Rules
    look them up...
  17. Accuracy
    how close a measured is to the true value (bullseye)
  18. Precision
    • how close a series of multiple measurements were to one another 
    • (tons in an area but not on bullseye)