In the diagnostic range, a 15% increase in kVp is equivalent to doubling the ___
Adding filtration to the useful x-ray beam dose what
reduces x-ray beam intensity while increasing the average energy
The result of added filtration is
an increase in the average energy of the x-ray beam with an accompanying reduction in x-ray quantity
Adding filtration is sometimes called _____ the x-ray beam because of the relative increase in average energy.
The atomic number of the target affects both the ___ and the effective energy of x-rays.
X-ray quantity is
the number of x-rays in the useful beam.
The factors that affect x-ray quantity
Consequently, to maintain a constant exposure of the image receptor, an increase of __% in kVp should be accompanied by a reduction of____ in mAs.
The HVL of an x-ray beam is
the thickness of absorbing material necessary to reduce the x-ray intensity to half of its original value.
the incident x-ray interacts with an outer-shell electron and ejects it from the atom, thereby ionizing the atom. The ejected electron is called a ______
________occurs between moderate-energy x-rays and outer-shell electrons. It results in ionization of the target atom, a change in x-ray direction, and a reduction in x-ray energy.
X-rays in the diagnostic range also undergo ionizing interactions with inner-shell electrons. The x-ray is not scattered, but it is totally absorbed. This process is called the _______
The electron removed from the atom, called a _________, escapes with kinetic energy equal to the difference between the energy of the incident x-ray and the binding energy of the electron
The _______ effect occurs when an incident x-ray is totally absorbed during the ionization of an inner-shell electron.
The incident photon disappears, and the K-shell electron, now called a _____, is ejected from the atom.
The interaction between the x-ray and the nuclear field causes the x-ray to disappear, and in its place, two electrons appear, one positively charged (positron) and one negatively charged. This process is called ____
Pair production occurs with x-rays that have energies greater than _____. The x-ray interacts with the nuclear field, and two electrons that have opposite electrostatic charges are created.