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Two types of energy
 kinetic  from motion (ie thermal)
 potential  possessed energy, dependent upon position (chemical energy, electrostatic energy)

Units of energy
 joules (J)
 and lower case calorie

Light
 radiation
 transmission of energy in waves

Wave components
 wavelength
 amplitude
 frequency
 speed of light

Wavelength
 λ
 distance between identical points on successive waves

amplitude
 α
 vertical distance between midline of wave to peak or trough

Frequency
 ν
 cycles/waves
 unit: 1/s or s1 or hertz or hz

speed of light (constant)

Electromagnetic Spectrum
gamma, xtray, uv, light, infared, microwave, radio
starts from highest E and highest frequency and lowest wavelength to lowest energy loweest frequency highest wavelength

Quantum theory
Max Planck  energy was emitted/absorbed in discrete quantities (quantum)

Einstein added on quantum and added....
ephoton = hv
h=planck's constant 6.63E34 J*s

light a wave or particle
both

Heinsberg Uncertainty Principle
Not possible to know the momentum and position of the particle with certainty THEREFORE the electron cannot orbit the nucleus in a defined path
important because electron can predict reactivity and qm helps explain that

Quantum Mechanics
describes the PROBABILITY of where an electron is at any given time

Electron Density (add on to QM)
gives the probablity of where an electron will be found in a specific part of an atom

Atomic Orbital
 WHERE electron density is distributed at a specific energy
 (also relates to quantum numbers)

Quantum Numbers
describes HOW electron density is distributed within the atom
 1. Principle Quantum # (n)
 2. Angular Momentum Quantum # (l)
 3. Magnetic Quantum # (Ml)
 4. Electron Spin Quantum #(Ms)

Principle Quantum # (n)
 tells you about the SIZE of the orbital
 as n increases, the distance from the nucleus increases and electron stability decreases

Angular Momentum Quantum # (l)
 tells you about the SHAPE of the orbital (depends on n)
 ranges from 0 to n1
spdf

Magnetic Quantum # (Ml)
 tells you the orientation of the orbital in 3D space (depends on l)
 # of values for Ml = 2l +1

Electron Spin Quantom # (Ms)
 describes the electron spin
 electron behaves like a magnet and has 2 possible directions of spin: spin up 1/2 or spin down 1/2
*can only have 2 electrons in 1 orbital and both must be in opposite spin


Electron Configuration
how electrons are distributed in orbitals

Pauli Exclusion Principle
 no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same 4q#s
 2 electrons that occupy the same space MUST have different spins

Aufbau Princple
 add electron to orbital from low to high
 aka building up

Hund's Rule
Cannot pair electrons in degenerate orbitals until all are the same spin

