Chemistry Chapter 3 Quantum Theory

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Chemistry Chapter 3 Quantum Theory
2015-01-29 00:05:52
chemistry chapter quantum theory

chemistry chapter 3 quantum theory
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  1. Two types of energy
    • kinetic - from motion (ie thermal)
    • potential - possessed energy, dependent upon position (chemical energy, electrostatic energy)
  2. Units of energy
    • joules (J)
    • and lower case calorie
  3. Light
    • radiation 
    • transmission of energy in waves
  4. Wave components
    • wavelength
    • amplitude
    • frequency
    • speed of light
  5. Wavelength
    • λ 
    • distance between identical points on successive waves
  6. amplitude
    • α
    • vertical distance between midline of wave to peak or trough
  7. Frequency
    • ν
    • cycles/waves
    • unit: 1/s or s-1 or hertz or hz
  8. speed of light (constant)
    • c
    • 3.00E8m/s in vacum

    c = λν
  9. Electromagnetic Spectrum
    gamma, xtray, uv, light, infared, microwave, radio 

    starts from highest E and highest frequency and lowest wavelength to lowest energy loweest frequency highest wavelength
  10. Quantum theory
    Max Planck - energy was emitted/absorbed in discrete quantities (quantum)
  11. Einstein added on quantum and added....
    ephoton = hv

    h=planck's constant 6.63E-34 J*s
  12. light a wave or particle
  13. Heinsberg Uncertainty Principle
    Not possible to know the momentum and position of the particle with certainty THEREFORE the electron cannot orbit the nucleus in a defined path

    important because electron can predict reactivity and qm helps explain that
  14. Quantum Mechanics
    describes the PROBABILITY of where an electron is at any given time
  15. Electron Density (add on to QM)
    gives the probablity of where an electron will be found in a specific part of an atom
  16. Atomic Orbital
    • WHERE electron density is distributed at a specific energy
    • (also relates to quantum numbers)
  17. Quantum Numbers
    describes HOW electron density is distributed within the atom

    • 1. Principle Quantum # (n)
    • 2. Angular Momentum Quantum # (l)
    • 3. Magnetic Quantum # (Ml)
    • 4. Electron Spin Quantum #(Ms)
  18. Principle Quantum # (n)
    • tells you about the SIZE of the orbital 
    • as n increases, the distance from the nucleus increases  and electron stability decreases
  19. Angular Momentum Quantum # (l)
    • tells you about the SHAPE of the orbital (depends on n)
    • ranges from 0 to n-1

  20. Magnetic Quantum # (Ml)
    • tells you the orientation of the orbital in 3D space (depends on l)
    • # of values for Ml = 2l +1
  21. Electron Spin Quantom # (Ms)
    • describes the electron spin 
    • electron behaves like a magnet and has 2 possible directions of spin: spin up 1/2 or spin down -1/2

    *can only have 2 electrons in 1 orbital and both must be in opposite spin
  22. Atomic Orbitals
    • SPDF
    • look it up...
  23. Electron Configuration
    how electrons are distributed in orbitals
  24. Pauli Exclusion Principle
    • no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same 4q#s
    • 2 electrons that occupy the same space MUST have different spins
  25. Aufbau Princple
    • add electron to orbital from low to high 
    • aka building up
  26. Hund's Rule
    Cannot pair electrons in degenerate orbitals until all are the same spin