ASL Midterm - Deaf History
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What were Aristotle's view on the Deaf?
- He thought people could only learn through hearing spoken language. Therefore, Deaf were incapable of learning.
- Their rights were limited because of this. They couldn't marry or have property, and had to have guardians with them.
What were Plato's views?
- Plato thought that everyone was born with "innate intelligence."
- He thought Deaf people couldn't learn, and should be left to die because they couldn't contribute anything.
What were St. Augustine's beliefs?
- He believed that signs and gestures could transmit thoughts like a spoken language.
- He thought that the Deaf could learn and receive faith and salvation.
- However, he thought that Deafness was a result of the parents committing a sin.
What were Socrate's views?
- Socrates believed in innate intelligence and that Deaf people were incapable of language and ideas.
- He thought that if a person wasn't Deaf from birth they had a chance to learn signs.
Who was Abbe Charles Michel De L'Eppe?
- He opened a free public school called the National Deaf-Dumb Institute of paris, which eventually became the Royal Institute of Paris.
- He was a "manualist," who believed that Deaf students should be taught visually through signs.
- He added signs to create a system and improve sign language.
- Known as the "Father of the Deaf."
Who was Samuel Heinicke?
- The "Father of Pure Oralism."
- He opened a German school called the "Electoral Saxon Institute for the Mutes and other persons Afflicted with Speech Defeats," which is now called the "Samuel Heinicke School for the Deaf."
- He taught students using liquids to show different syllable sounds on the tongue.
Who was Abbe Roch Sicard?
- He was De L'Eppe's successor.
- He created the "Theorie des Signes," a dictionary of sign language.
- He became the director of the French Institute for the Deaf.
Who was Jonathan Lambert?
- The first known Deaf resident of Martha's Vineyard.
- He came from Kent Weald County, England to Chilmark, bringing sign language with him. This is why the language was influenced by British Sign Language.
Who was Katie West?
- Katie West was the last known Deaf resident born into the island's sign language tradition.
- The Deaf culture lost traction because mainland Deaf schooling became popular and students left the island to get an education and integrated into ASL and continental America.
What was the Founder's Effect?
- A gene is introduced into a small gene pool and grows to dominate or become common within the gene pool.
- Jonathan Lambert introduced the Deaf gene into Martha's Vineyard.
- There were so many Deaf people that hearing people learned sign language and Deafness was treated as a common thing. In Chilmark, 1 in every 25 people were Deaf.
What was the Milan Conference?
- A meeting for international Deaf educators.
- A declaration was made that oral teaching was better than teaching through sign. They banned sign language.
- Everyone agreed except for Britain and America, represented by Edward and Thomas Gallaudet.
Who was Mary Thornley?
Mary Thornley is famous for her "Milan, Italy 1880" painting which shows "hearing hunters" shooting down ASL.
What were the ages of Deaf education?
- The golden age of Deaf education was between 1818 and 1912 when many Deaf schools were opened.
- The dark age was after the Milan Conference when students were taught orally. Many students didn't graduate because the education system wasn't efficient.
- Deaf education recovered after the Dark Age when it was obvious that oral language wasn't working. They began using sign language again.
Who was Thomas Gallaudet?
- He became interested in Deaf education when he met his parent's neighbor's daughter, Alice Cogswell.
- He travelled to Europe to see how other countries teach Deaf children.
Who was Laurent Clerc?
- He was taught by Abbe Sicard at the institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets.
- He fell into the kitchen fireplace as a kid and burned his cheek and lost his hearing.
- He taught Gallaudet the method of the signs for abstract ideas and in return was tutored on the English language.
Who was Edward Miner Gallaudet?
- He was Thomas Gallaudet's son.
- Along with Amos Kendall's help, he built the first Deaf college in America, called the "Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and Blind."
- Abraham Lincoln signed the charter to allow diplomas to be given by the university.
- Today the school is Gallaudet University.
Who was Daniel Chester French?
- He was a famous sculpture who built the statue of Thomas Gallaudet and Alice Cogswell that's now at Gallaudet University.
- He built Lincoln's statue in Washington D.C. and the hands spell "A L" to show his initials and contribution to the Deaf community.
Who was Alexander Graham Bell?
- He was an American inventor and professor. He was very interested in Deafness, and his wife and mother were Deaf.
- He visited Martha's Vineyard to study the Deaf and suggested the soil or hills could have caused the Deafness.
- He opened a school for teachers of the Deaf which was attached to Boston University.
- He founded the American Association to promote teaching speech to the Deaf.
- He published the Volta Review, which was peer reviewed research journal and was used by teachers for goal teaching to Deaf people.
- He believed in using Eugenics to control Deafness. He believed that Deaf people ruined the human race and wanted to stop the gene from continuing. He tried to sterilize all Deaf people and wanted to prevent intermarriages between Deaf people and hearing people.
What was the relationship between Deaf people and the Holocaust?
- Deaf people across Europe and especially Germany were targeted by the Nazi's for being biologically inferior
- Deaf children were killed as newborns or sterilized.
- Deaf people were brought to concentration camps.
- The German government does not recognize the Deaf as having been affected by the Holocaust.
- Three Deaf survivors were Harry Dunai, Charlotte Friedman, and Morris Field.
- "In Der Nacht" is an art exhibit at Gallaudet that shows the loss and suffering of the Deaf during the Holocaust.
What was the National Association of the Deaf?
- The NAD is an organization run by Deaf people to advocate for Deaf rights. The initial goal was to have ASL recognized as a legitimate language and tool for education.
- George Veditz was the first president and the first person to be filmed signing in ASL. He is famous for his speech on "The Preservation of Sign Language."
- Robert Weiterreicht was an inventor and physicist who invented the TTY.
- William Stokoe was a leading educator of the Deaf and the founder of Sign Language Linguistics. He discovered that ASL was a real language while he was the Chariman of the English department at Gallaudet.
Why was the National Theater of the Deaf created?
- The NTD was created to provide services to the Deaf that they did not have such as getting no closed captioning, expensive telephones, no 911 services, and no interpreters available.
- They perform around the world in both English and ASL. It was inspired by the Miracle Worker movie.
- They removed some stigma form ASL, legitimized its use on television and stage and motivated people to consider Deafness in a new way.
What is the ADA and IDEA?
- The Americans with Disabilities Act was signed by George HW Bush and helped prevent discrimination against disabilities.
- The IDEA is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that stated how public agencies should offer special education to disabled kids. It gave Deaf kids special services such as interpreters, flashing lights for bells and alarms, a video phone, and speech therapy.
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