Study Questions for Strain Theory

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Mazie
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Study Questions for Strain Theory
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2015-01-29 18:12:47
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Strain Theory
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criminology
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  1. According to Messner and Rosenfeld, the ideology of economic supremacy can create an environment conducive to crime/delinquency. 

    T   F
    T
  2. If someone lost a valuable thing (such as full-time job) and became very frustrated/upset, then according to general strain theory, the source of this person's negative feelings should come from the presentation of positive stimulus. 


    T  F
    F

    the removal of positively valued things
  3. According to institutional anomie theory, strain will be experienced by unemployed people only. 

    T  F
    F

    . change "unemployed people only" to "all social members"
  4. Modern strain theorists (especially, Robert Agnew) emphasize that some stressful situations (like failing to win the Nobel Prize) do NOT necessarily lead /delinquency. 

    T  F
    T
  5. Robert Agnew believes that the disjunction between aspirations (ideals) and actual achievements usually will NOT cause strain. 

    T  F
    T
  6. According to Cloward and Ohlin, teenagers who identify with the subculture of retreatism may become priests or nuns. 

    T  F
    F

    change "priest/nuns" to "drug addicts"
  7. According to Robert Merton's adaptation model, if someone rejects socially/culturally—endorsed goals while still j following socially/culturally B approved rules and obeying the law, then this person should be considered as a criminal or delinquent. 

    T  F
    F

    change "criminal" to "ritualist"
  8. Institutional anomie theorists indicate that the most influential value of modern American society is sexism.

    T  F
    F

    change "sexism" to "fetishism of money"
  9. R Robert Merton proposes a typology of social adaptation to see how people deal with stressful situations. The category ritualism is best exemplified by human smugglers. 

    T  F
    F

    change "human smugglers" to "monks"
  10. According to general strain theory, strained people may try to . lover their outcomes if they believe that they are under-rewarded. 

    T  F
    F

    change "lower..to "increase their outcomes"
  11. Emile Durkheim argues that anomie usually will take place in pre-industrial or simple societies, like the Acadian village of the 19th-century Louisiana. 

    T  F
    F  change "pre-industrial societies" to "industrial societies"
  12. In Gesellschaft, people tend to pay more attention to ascribed statuses than individual achievements. 

    T  F
    F

    change "ascribed..to "achieved statuses"
  13. In Gemelnschaft, people tend to show higher tolerance of deviance/delinquency. 

    T  F
    F  

    change "higher" to "lower"
  14. Classic strain theorists tend to focus their attention to the life experiences of upper-class people. 

    T  F
    F

    change "upper" to "lower"
  15. Generally speaking, kids from single parent-headed families are more likely to experience strain than their counterparts who are from families where both parents are present. 

    T  F
    T
  16. One of the most influential perspectives of classic strain theory is differential opportunity theory. Such a perspective is developed by Robert Merton. 

    T  F
    F

    change "Merton" to "Cloward and Ohlin"
  17. Messner and Rosenfeld argue that certain social qualities (like mutual help and sympathy) in America are disappearing because of Americans' identification with wealth. 

    T  F
    T
  18. According to general strain theory, the removal of positively valued goals usually is associated with a social comparison process. 

    T  F
    F

    change "the removal of... " to "the process people perceive"
  19. America, Asian Americans have the lowest percentages of single parent-headed households. 

    T  F
    T
  20. New immigrants with relatives or friend in America are more likely to overcome strain than those new immigrants who do not have such networks. 

    T  F
    T
  21. According to Merton's adaptation model, one of the best examples for retreatists is the alcoholic. 

    T  F
    T
  22. According to Merton's adaptation model, one of the best examples for ritualists is hedonists. 

    T  F
    T
  23. According to Merton's adaptation model, one of the best examples for ritualists is chronic welfare recipients. 

    T  F
    T
  24. According to Merton's adaptation model, best examples for retreatists is bohemians. 

    T F
    T
  25. According to Merton's adaptation model, one of the best examples for rebels is communists/socialists. 

    T  F
    T
  26. According to Merton's adaptation model, one of the best examples for rebels is anarchists. 

    T  F
    T
  27. According to Merton's adaptation model, one of the best examples for rebels is terrorists. 

    T  F
    T
  28. According to Merton's adaptation model, one of the best examples for rebels is problem students. 

    T  F
    F

    change "problem students" to "social reformers"
  29. Both mechanical and organic solidities are types interpersonal interaction/social cohesion. Mechanic solidarity usually can be found in places like ___________.

    a. Lafayette, LA 
    b. Houston, TX 
    c. Washington DC 
    d. Maurice, LA 
    e. New Orleans, LA
    D
  30. Which of the following, according to Cloward and Onun, will encourage adolescents to get involved in tough and masculine activities, especially interpersonal violence/street fighting? 

    a. retreatist subculture 
    b. conflict subculture 
    c. criminal subculture 
    d. violent subculture 
    e. abusive subculture
    B
  31. Some adolescents may get involved in delinquency when the things they value were/will be removed. Which of the following is one of the protective/self-defensive methods (i.e., behavioral strategies) used by such adolescents? 

    a. trying to stay calm 
    b. seeking revenge against those responsible for the removal of positive things 
    c. trying to retrieve lost things through misconducts like theft 
    d. using drug 
    e. all of the above
    C
  32. Which of the following will allow/encourage stressful adults or teenagers to use non-delinquent methods to handle stressful events? 

    a. if a society at large can provide emotional or financial support 
    b. if a desired goal becomes replaceable 
    c. if teenagers are taught that the potential costs delinquency are far greater than associated benefits 
    d. if horrible stories of "bad" models are told 
    e. an or me above
    E
  33. General strain theorists argue that when negative stimuli (e.g. physical abuse, verbal threat/insult, conflictual relationships with parents/friends/school teachers, etc) present, the most common behavioral pattern taken by frustrated people/teenagers is ________.

    a. aggression 
    b. alienation/isolation 
    c. communication 
    d. reflection 
    e. indifference
    A
  34. Based on Merton's classification system of social adaptation, we can infer that _____may be the ones who are least likely to become delinquents. 

    a. retreatists 
    b. revolutionaries 
    c. innovators 
    d. rebels 
    e- ritualists
    E
  35. If we use Emile Durkheim's concepts to analyze the societal context of strain, then organic solidarity usually can be found in places like ________.

    a. Toronto 
    b. Phoenix 
    c. Taipei 
    d. Hong Kong 
    e. all of the above
    E
  36. Which of the following is a critique of strain theories: 

    a. early strain theorists tend to over-emphasize the violent nature of human behavior 
    b. early strain theorists tend to overlook property crime 
    c. early strain theorists tend to overlook female delinquency 
    d. early strain theory includes some philosophic terms 
    e. all of the above
    E
  37. From the angle of structure, which of the following is NOT a stable dimension of crime/delinquency? 

    a. racial background 
    b. gender 
    c. social class 
    d. living environment 
    e. criminal experience
    E
  38. According to general strain theory, some people may commit crimes/delinquent acts if they believe that social resources (especially money) are not distributed outcome and actual outcome). Which of the following of such delinquent acts? 

    a. lower inputs for other people 
    b. increase outcomes for myself 
    c. increase inputs for myself 
    d. lower outcomes for myself 
    e. increase outcomes for other people
    B
  39. important/noteworthy emotional reaction to strain is ________.

    a. anger 
    b. ignorance 
    c. depression 
    d. retaliation 
    e. withdrawal
    A
  40. According to Merton's adaptation mode model, which of the following are innovators? 

    a. stock manipulators 
    b. con men 
    c. burglars 
    d. identity thieves 
    e. all of the above
    E

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