Biochemistry Winter

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Biochemistry Winter
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  1. tRNA has the structure

    of a helix

    of a beta sheet

    resembling a clover leaf

    of double helix
    Resembling clover leaf
  2. which fatty acids are essential for humans

    alpha linolenic acid

    linoleic acid

    palmitic acid

    stearic acid
    alpha linolenic acid

    linoleic acid
  3. at equilibrium, the isothermic – isobaric gibbs energy change is

    the maximum

    the minimum

    negative

    zero
    zero
  4. which citrate cycle enzyme is localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane

    fumerase

    isocitrate dehydrogenase

    citrate synthase

    Succinate dehydrogenase
    succinate dehydrogenase
  5. Which of the following amino acids contain an R group that can function as a buffer at pH 7?

    Proline

    Lysine

    Aspartic Acid

    Histidine
    Histidine
  6. Regarding alpha helix all of the statements are correct except

    It is common structural element of globular proteins

    Its backbone is stabilized by H-bonds between oxygen and carbonyl group of amino acid ….. amide hydrogen of an amino acid located 4 amino acids farther down

    It is the predominant structure of collagen

    It has a stable and rigid conformation
    It is the predominant structure of collagen (different helix)
  7. Choose the correct statement concerning ionic bond

    Removal of electron from an atom’s valence sphere leads to formation of a cation

    Ionic bond is based on mutual shared electrons

    A typical compound with high contribution of ionic character is hydrogen iodide

    For the stability of compounds bound by ionic bond coulombic (electrostatic) interactions are characteristic
    Removal of electron from an atom’s valence sphere leads to formation of a cation

    For the stability of compounds bound by ionic bond coulombic (electrostatic) interactions are characteristic
  8. Choose the correct statement concerning acid base equilibria

    An acidic buffer can be realized as a mixed aqueous solution of HCL and NaOH

    The dissociation constant of a strong acid Ka= <10-4

    Sodium acetate aqueous solution, due to hydrolysis, shows basic characteristic (i.e. pH > 7)

    According to the brondsted lowry theory, acid is a compound capable of donating H+ to a Cation
    Sodium acetate aqueous solution, due to hydrolysis, shows basic characteristic (i.e. pH >7)
  9. Isoenzyme are

    Enzymes of different structure catalyzing the same reaction

    Enzymes with the same cofactor

    Enzymes using the same substrate for different reactions

    Enzymes using the same reaction mechanism (for different reactions)
    Enzymes of different structure catalyzing the same reaction
  10. Which of the following substances belong to the membrane lipids?

    Isoprenoids

    Lecethines

    Triacylglycerols

    Cerebrosides
    Lecethines

    Cerebrosides
  11. Select the incorrect statement

    Schiif base is the reaction product of aldehyde and primary amine

    Oxidation of secondary hydroxyl group in the molecule of oxaloacetic acid forms malic acid

    The product of 2-propanol dehydration is not ethene

    Glutaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid
    Oxidation of secondary hydroxyl group in the molecule of oxaloacetic acid forms malic acid
  12. Which of the following compounds
    is not a hexose

    Galactose

    Fructose

    Glucose

    Ribose
    Ribose
  13. The isoelectric point of glutamic acid is 3.2 what is its charge at pH 1.8

    Partial positive

    Zero

    Positive

    Negative
    Positive
  14. What is the product of glucose oxidation C1

    Gulonic acid

    Glucoronic acid

    Gluconalactone

    Glucaric acid
    Gluconalactone
  15. Which statement is correct

    Valine is non essential

    Valine contains a second amino group

    Valine is a hydrophobic amino acid

    Valine is an acidic amino acid
    Valine is a hydrophobic amino acid
  16. Which of the following heterocycles is contained in FAD

    Nicotine , pyramidine, pentahydrofuran

    Isollaxazine, purine, tetrahydropyran

    Nicotine , pyramidine,pentahydrofuran

    Isollaxazine, purine, tetrahydrofuran
    Isollaxazine, purine, tetrahydrofuran
  17. Urea

    Is a weak base

    Is produced in the kidneys

    Is a strong acid

    Is a strong base
    Is a weak base
  18. An irreversible enzyme inhibitor is

    Usually non toxic

    Not modifier of a functional group

    Usually bond to the enzyme covalently

    Usually bound to the enzyme by non covalent interactions
    Usually bond to the enzyme covalently
  19. Catalytic effect of an enzyme is

    Decrease the free energy of the

    Increase the free energy

    Increase the transition state

    Decrease the transition state
    Decrease the transition state
  20. Amides

    Are alkaline

    Are not alkaline

    Are poisonous

    Are not stable
    Are not alkaline
  21. In irreversible inhibition

    Inhibitor binds only to the enzyme substrate complex

    Vmax is raised

    toxic
    toxic
  22. Tryptophan contains in its structure

    Furan

    Imidazole

    Indole

    Pyrrole
    Indole
  23. Which of the following heterocyles
    are components of NAD structure

    Nicotine, pyrimidine, tetrahydrofuran

    Isoallaxasine, purine, tetrahydrofuran

    Nicotinamide, purine, tetrahydrofuran

    Isoallaxasine, purine, tetrahydrapyran
    Nicotinamide, purine, tetrahydrofuran
  24. Which of the following heterocyles
    are components of FAD structure
    Isoallaxasine

    Purine

    Tetrahydrofuran
  25. Which of the following heterocyles
    are components of ATP structure
    Purine

    Tetrahydrofuran
  26. Glucokinase and hexokinase

    Cleave glycogen

    Utilize inorganic phosphate

    Have identical amino acid composition

    Are isoenzymes
    Are isoenzymes

    (Phosphorylate glucose)
  27. Reaction of aldehyde with alcohol gives

    Aldol

    Hemiacetol

    Ketone body

    Anhydride
    Hemiacetol
  28. Three double bonds are a feature of the molecules

    Linoleic acid

    Oleic acid

    Linolenic acid

    Arachadoic acid
    Linolenic acid
  29. Examples of reducing saccharine are

    Glucose, sucrose, galactose

    Amylose, sucrose, xylose

    Sucrose, fructose, cellulse

    Glucose, galactose, cellulose

    Lactose, glucose, deoxyribose
    Lactose, glucose, deoxyribose
  30. What is the product of glucose oxidation at C1

    Glucaric acid

    Glucuronic acid

    Gulonic acid

    Gluconolactone
    Gluconolactone
  31. Which of the following amino acids are likely to occur in the interior of a globular protein dissolved in aqueous solution

    Aspartic acid

    Glutamic acid

    Phenylanine

    Glutamine
    Phenylanine
  32. What does choline contain

    Alcohol

    Amine

    Amide

    Primary ammonium
    Alcohol
  33. The nervous tissue does not oxidise

    Fatty acids

    Amino acids

    Ketone bodies

    Glucose
    Fatty Acids
  34. Formation of bilirubin is accompanied by the release of

    CO2

    ZN2+

    Mn2+

    CO
    CO
  35. How many moles ATP are formed by the oxidation of reducing equivalents transported from a mole of cytoplasmic NADH into mitochondria via the glycerol phosphate shuttle

    Two and a half

    Two

    One and a half

    Three
    Two and a half
  36. Check the statements about dispersion systems

    The particles of analytical dispersions are observable by means of an electron microscope

    The particles of analytical dispersions are observable by means of an optical microscope

    The course dispersions exhibit considerable osmotic pressure

    The particles of analytical dispersions are not observable by means of any optical device
    The particles of analytical dispersions are observable by means of an electron microscope
  37. A competitive inhibitor

    Is an allosteric inhibitor

    Binds to another site on the enzyme molecule

    Damages the conformation of the enzyme

    Binds to the active site
    Binds to the active site
  38. If a globular protein is embedding in a lipid bilayer, which of the following amino acids can be in contact with the interior of the bilayer

    Glycine

    Phenylanine

    Aspartic acid

    Glutamic acid
    Glycine

    Phenylanine
  39. 2,3 bisphoglycerate

    Shifts the saturation curve to the right

    Does not influence the oxygen release in tissues

    Makes oxygen release in tissues more difficult

    Increases the hemoglobin affinity to oxygen
    Shifts the saturation curve to the right
  40. ?? comprises in its structure

    Pyridine

    Indole

    Furan

    Pyrrole

    Imidazole
    Pyridine - Nicotinic acid

    Indole - Tryptophan

    Furan -

    Pyrrole - Proline

    Imidazole - Histidine
  41. What statement is correct

    Valine is a non essential amino acid

    Valine is a basic amino acid

    Valine is an acidic amino acid

    Valine is a hydrophobic amino acid
    Valine is a hydrophobic amino acid
  42. Phosphatidic acid is the intermediate in synthesis of

    Triacyglycerols

    Phosphoric acid

    Glycolipids

    Sphingolipids
    Glycolipids

    Sphingolipids
  43. Which of the following compounds are hexoses

    Fructose

    Glucose

    Ribose

    Galactose
    Fructose

    Glucose

    Galactose
  44. The base pairs of DNA are

    Adenine-guanin and cyctein-thymine

    Adenine-cytosine and guanine-uracil

    Adenine-cytosine and guanine-thymine

    Adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine
    Adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine
  45. Reaction catalyzed by Acetyl CoA carboxylase produces

    Pyruvate

    CO2

    Malonyl CoA

    Succinyl CoA
    Malonyl CoA
  46. Which of the following enzymes are not hydrolases

    Carboxylases

    Lipases

    Esterases

    Proteases
    Carboxylases = Ligase
  47. Check the correct statements about redox potential of substance A

    The lower the redox potential is, the weaker reducing agent the substance A is

    The higher the redox potential is, the stronger oxidising agent the substance A is

    The redox potential is expressed in amperes

    The redox potential is expressed in volts
    The higher the redox potential is, the stronger oxidising agent the substance A is

    The redox potential is expressed in volts
  48. H2O2 is decomposed by
    Catalase

    Transition metals and compounds

    Potassium iodide
  49. Free fatty acids are transported by?
    Carnitine (cross inner mitochondrial membrane)

    Albumin (bound to this in plasma)

    Membrane transporters (more than 12C long need help to cross membrane)
  50. Urea cycle occurs in
    Liver

    A little in the kidney
  51. What doesn’t have mitochondria
    Erythrocyte

    Eye lense
  52. detection of ischemic myocardium
    pyruvate

    lactate
  53. enzyme on mitochondrial matrix
    cytochrome P450 (terminal oxidase enzyme in electron transfer chain)
  54. transfer NH3 groups in liver
    alanine --> ammonia + Pyruvate (glucose for muscles)
  55. degredation of acetylcholine
    acetylcholinesterase

    Acetyl choline --> choline + acetate (acetylcholinesterase)

    Choline + Acetyle CoA --> Acetyl choline (choline acetyltransferase)
  56. Substances which go through the membrane
    Non-polar molecules

    O2
  57. Melatonin is synthesized from
    Tryptophan – used to synthesis seratonin

    • Tryptophan --> 5 hydroxytryptophan (hydroxylase) --> serotonin (decarboxylase) --> N acetyl serotonin (acetyltransferase)  -->
    • serotonin (methyltransferase)
  58. Serotonin is synthesized from
    Tryptophan
  59. Adrenaline is synthesized from
    Tyrosine

    Tyrosine --> dopamine --> adrenaline
  60. Regulation of fatty acid synthesis
    Acetyl CoA Carboxylase
  61. NADPH arises from
    Pentose phosphate pathway
  62. Beta Oxidation of fatty acids
    Peroxisomes (long 20C chains)

    Forms acetyl CoA
  63. Transporting form of Fe
    Transferrin

    Lactoferrin

    heptoglobin
  64. Most common plasma protein
    Albumin
  65. Which vitamin helps resorption of calcium
    Vitamin D
  66. Decarboxylation of amino acids
    Forms Biogenic amines
  67. High ration insulin : glucagon
    Fatty acid synthesis

    Increase glycogen synthesis – decrease gluconeogenesis

    Increase lipid synthesis – decrease lipolysis

    Decrease proteolysis – increase amino acid intake
  68. Where is DNA found
    Mitochondria

    Nucleus
  69. Iron stored intercellular
    Ferritin

    hemosiderin
  70. During what process does poryphrin occur
    Heme synthesis
  71. What is released in bilirubin formation
    Carbon Monoxide

    water
  72. What radical is formed during autoxidation of hemoglobin
    Superoxide
  73. Main enzyme of salvage pathway of purine
    Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT)

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT)
  74. Glycated hemoglobin
    Non enzymatic

    Influenced by hemoglobin levels

    Used to measure high glucose level over previous 8 weeks (1/2 life RBC)
  75. Pyrimidines are made from
    Glutamine – amide nitrogen

    Bicarbonate - carbons

    Aspartate - carbons

    Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate - sugar
  76. Purines are made from
    Ribose 5 phosphate - sugar

    Glutamine – amide nitrogen (2x)

    Glycine – Carbons

    Formyl - Carbon (2x)

    Bicarbonate - Carbon

    Aspartate – amino nitrogen
  77. What is a nucleoside
    Base + sugar
  78. Intrahepatic jaundice
    Everything except “normal bilirubin levels”

    Due to liver disease

    High levels of bilirubin in blood and stool
  79. What changes methemoglobin to hemoglobin
    Methemaglobin reductase
  80. Cysteine is made from
    Methionine --> homocystein

    serine
  81. Nucleotides contain
    Base

    Sugar

    Phosphate
  82. Where do carbons in pyrimidine come from
    HCO3-

    Aspartate
  83. Non proteinogenic amino acid in urea cycle (not coded for but produced as intermediates)
    Ornithine

    Citralline
  84. Platelet activating factor
    Phospholipid activator
  85. Hemolytic anemia
    G6PD deficiency (Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase)

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency
  86. What forms of hemoglobin has a high affinity
    R form – relaxed form

    T form – tense form (low affinity)
  87. What process occurs in erythrocytes
    PPP (Pentose Phosphate Pathway)

    Anaerobic glycolysis
  88. Hemoglobin regulation
    PH

    CO2

    3BPG (bis Phosphoglycerate)
  89. What forms melanin
    Tyrosine --> DOPA --> dopaquinone --> eumelanin

    Cystein + dopaquinone --> pheomelanin
  90. Carnitine shuttle
    Transports fatty acid complex across mitochondrial membrane

    Fatty Acyl CoA on both side but does NOT cross
  91. Digestion of protein starts in
    Stomach
  92. Digestion of saccharides starts in
    Saliva
  93. What does brown fat have more than white fat
    Mitochondria
  94. What do lipid rafts have
    Cholesterol

    Sphingolipids (3 tails)

    Saturated fatty acids
  95. What causes prions?
    Protein misfolding
  96. What causes uncoupling of proteins
    Increased permeability of mitochondrial membrane

    Disrupts Hydrogen gradient
  97. Steroid proteins are derived from
    Cholesterol
  98. What are detoxicated catecholamines???
    Monoamine oxidase
  99. What activates G protein
    GTP (on) --> GDP (off)

    G protein coupled receptor
  100. In blood bilirubin is transported to
    Albumin (bound to this in plasma)
  101. What amino acids synthesize other compounds
    Tryptophan --> serotonin + melatonin

    Tyrosine --> melanin + chatecholamines + epinephrine

    Glycine --> porphyrins + nucleotides

    Arginine --> nitric oxide

    Aspartate --> nucleotides

    Glutamine --> nucleotides
  102. Lipoproteins do contain
    Protein

    lipid

    Fatty acids???
  103. In cori cycle, glucose is synthesized in liver from peripheral organs
    Lactate is transported from muscle --> liver

    Glucose is transported from liver --> muscle
  104. Moles of ATP produced from 1 mole NADH
    2.5
  105. Key enzymes regulated in purine synthesis
    Glutamine PRPP amidotransferase

    PRPP synthase

    Pyrophosphate amidotransferse
  106. Proteoglycans are
    Highly glycosylated proteins

    proteoglycans have more carbs,less proteins.
  107. Glycoprotein are
    Highly glycosylated proteins

    glycoproteins have more protein, less carbs
  108. Enzymes responsible for peptide synthesis
    Peptidyl transferase
  109. Mucins are
    Glycoproteins with N glycocidic bonds (N linked oligosaccharides)

    O linked oligosaccharides

    glycocylated
  110. Reactions between keto acids and amino acids are catalyzed by
    Transaminases
  111. What makes up cholesterol
    Mevalonate

    Acetyl CoA --> mevalonate --> squalene --> lanosterol -->wait cholesterol
  112. How many NADPH from 5 cycles of G-6-P (Glucose 6 Phosphate)
    2 x 5 = 10
  113. What is ceramide
    Fatty acid in cell membrane

    Component of sphingomyelin

    Major lipids in bilayer
  114. Vitamin B1
    Thiamine
  115. Irreversible inhibition
    covalent modification of enzyme

    Toxic

    Change enzyme
  116. Substrate phosphorylation
    Creation of ATP from ADP

    GDP --> GTP
  117. Acidobase catalyst
    Ribonuclease
  118. Function of biotin
    Carboxylation

    Transfer of Carbon Dioxide
  119. How many ATPs during H transfer from NADH via glycerol phosphate shuttle
    1.5
  120. What doesn’t cross the inner mitochondrial membrane
    Acetyl CoA

    ions

    Only freely permeable to Oxygen + Carbon Dioxide + water
  121. What crosses inner mitochondrial membrane
    Oxygen

    Carbon Dioxide

    water
  122. Vitamin B2
    Ribflavin
  123. Glucokinase / Hexokinase
    Isoenzymes

    Cleave ATP

    Phosphorylates glucose --> glucose 6 phosphate
  124. How many ATP from 1 mol substrate in respiratory chain
    30-32
  125. Difference between CPS1 and CPS2
    (Carbomyly Phosphate Synthetase)
    In catalytic reaction, CPS2 pyrimidine biosynthesis

    CPS 1 functions in mitochondria / protein + nitrogen metabolism

    CPS 2 fucntions in cytosol / pyramidine synthesis
  126. Conjugation of bilirubin
    Glucoronic acid (makes it soluble)
  127. DTMP synthesized by
    (deoxythymidine monophosphate)
    Methylation of dUMP (deoxyuridine monophosphate) ??
  128. Key activator of urea cycle
    N acetyleglutamate

    glutamate
  129. Amino acid + ammonia forms
    Glutamate + ammonia --> Glutamine

    Aspartate + ammonia --> aspargine
  130. How does hemoglobin S develop
    Sickle Cell anemia

    Change between Glu A1 beta for Val

    Beta globin gene – glutamic acid à valine position 6
  131. Enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis
    Pyruvate carboxylase

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

    Fructose bisphosphatase

    Glucose 6 phosphatase
  132. Mobile parts of respiratory chain
    Cytochrome C

    ubiquinose
  133. What is the ping pong?
    First product is released and next substrate binds
  134. What isn’t oxidized in nervous tissues
    Fatty acids
  135. What doesn’t happen in respiratory chain
    Oxygen oxidation
  136. To what termination of proteosynthesis does polypeptide chain move to
    E site = binds free tRNA

    P site = binds peptidyl tRNA

    A site = binds aminoacyl RNA
  137. What is carnitine for
    Transfer of fatty acids across membrane

    Transports long chain acyl groups

    Acyl CoA on both side but not transfered
  138. What is phosphoglucomutase
    Glucose-1-P to glucose-6-P

    Transfers phosphate from 1 to 6 position and vice versa
  139. First part of glycogen degredation
    phosphorylation
  140. Where are some fatty acids formed
    Endoplasmic reticulum

    Mitochondria

    Cytosol (up to 16C)
  141. How does sorbitol appear
    Reduction of carbon 1 of glucose-1-P
  142. What arises after acetyl CoA carboxylates
    Malonyl CoA
  143. What does hexokinase do
    Phosphorylate glucose

    Phosphorylates glucose --> glucose 6 phosphate
  144. What does cholesterol synthase do?
    Stimulated by insulin

    Inhibited by glucagon
  145. What reaction does glycogen synthase catalyse
    Glycogen + UDP glucose (Uridine Diphosphate Glucose)

    Glucose --> glycogen
  146. What is at the end of B oxidation
    NADH

    Acetyl CoA --> citrate cycle --> NADH + FADH2
  147. What is fate for Lesch Nyhan Syndrome
    ATP deficiency

    Build up of uric acid
  148. Carbomyl phosphate is made of
    NH4+

    HCO3-

    Phosphate (from ATP)
  149. Coenzyme of transamination
    Pyidoxal phosphate (PLP)
  150. What amino acid is important for metabolism of amino acids
    Glutamate
  151. What influences transamination
    Carbomyl phosphate????
  152. Hemoglobin
    Sickle cell anemia
  153. Product formed in degradation of purine
    Urea

    Uric acid
  154. Precursor of AMP + GMP
    IMP (adenylosuccinate synthase / IMP dehydrogenase)
  155. What enzyme breaks down ammonia
    GDH (glutamate dehydrogenase)

    Carbomyl phosphate synthetase I
  156. What 2 amino acids can change into each other
    Phenylalanine + Tyrosine
  157. What helps malate aspartate shuttle
    NAD / NADH

    Glu / Asp
  158. Hydrolases are

    Esterases

    Proteases

    Lipases

    Decarboxylases
    Esterases

    Proteases

    Lipases
  159. Succinate dehydrogenase

    Part of the citrate cycle

    An enzyme of electron transport chain

    On the inner mitochondrial membrane

    Reduces succinate to oxaloacetate
    Part of the citrate cycle

    An enzyme of electron transport chain

    On the inner mitochondrial membrane

    WRONG: Reduces succinate to oxaloacetate (opposite way)
  160. when delta H is negative and delta S is negative the reaction is spontaneous

    Reaction occurs on its own in all temps

    During lower temps

    During higher temps

    Reaction doesn’t occur spontaneously
    During lower temps
  161. what is substrate phosphorylation

    Use of ATP during glycolysis

    Creation of ATP from intermediates
    Creation of ATP from intermediates
  162. Enzyme that uses acidobasic catalyst
    ribonuclease
  163. Gibbs E
    negative during higher equilibrium of constant
  164. Which base pairs are in DNA?
    A-T, C-G
  165. Which structure is part of heme?
    Pyrrole
  166. Which amino acid contains sulfur?
    Methionine

    cystein
  167. Which lipid is found in cell membranes?
    Cereberosides – type of glycosphingolipids

    Phophotidylinositol

    Phosphotidylcholine

    Phosphosphingolipids

    Lecithins are generic
  168. What is a type of hydrolase?
    Cleaves using water

    Esterase

    Nuclease

    Lipase

    Phosphatase

    Glycosylase

    Proteases

    hydrolases
  169. Arginine is
    Basic amino acid
  170. Which is found on the inside of globular proteins
    Hydrophobic amino acid

    Glycine / Alanine / Proline / Valine / Leucine / Isoleucine / Phenylalanine / Tryptophan / Methionine
  171. Which is not a hexose
    Ribose is pentose sugar
  172. Which is a monomer of nucleic acid
    Nucleotide
  173. Choose the incorrect statement
    ethylene glycol is a secondary alcohol
  174. What is the rate of reaction at Km
    Vmax / 2
  175. Competitive inhibitor
    binds to the active site of an enzyme
  176. Waxes contain
    Long chained alcohols
  177. Pick the incorrect statement
    Something about keto acids and oxidations
  178. Hydrolases Need:

    Biotin = CoR

    Cofactor

    Do not need a cofactor

    ATP
    Do not need a cofactor
  179. Base pairs are stabilized by:
    Hydrogen bonds
  180. When an amino acid has an isoelectric point at 6.8, what is it’s charge at pH 8
    Negative
  181. Taurine is:
    Derived from cysteine amino acid

    Sulfonic acid

    Major component of bile

    Cysteine --> cysteine sulfonic acid --> hypotaurine à taurine
  182. Which statement is incorrect:
    Any acid with an OH on the second carbon is a functional derivative of carboxylic acid
  183. During the anaerobic parts of glycolysis forms:

    a) NADH

    b) NADPH

    c) FMNH

    d) FADH2
    a) NADH
  184. In the Pentose cycle…. is produced:

    a) NADH

    b) NADPH

    c) FMNH

    d) FADH2
    b) NADPH
  185. For the biosynthesis of amino acids…. is used:

    a) NADH

    b) NADPH

    c) FMNH

    d) FADH2
    b) NADPH
  186. During beta-oxidation of amino acids forms:

    a) NADH

    b) NADPH

    c) FMNH

    d) FADH2
    a) NADH

    d) FADH2
  187. For the transfer of fatty acids into mitochondria…. is used:

    a) transferrin

    b) transducin

    c) carnitine

    d) carnosin
    c) carnitine
  188. Among the ketone bodies produced in excess acetyl-CoA that does/do not belong is/are:

    a) acetoacetate

    b) acetone

    c) beta-hydroxybutyrate

    d) pyruvate
    d) pyruvate
  189. Which enzyme of the citric acid cycle is localized in inner mitochondrial membrane:

    a) citrate synthase

    b) isocitrate dehydrogenase

    c) succinate dehydrogenase

    d) fumarase
    c) succinate dehydrogenase
  190. How many ATP molecules are formed in the respiratory chain during the oxidation of 1 NADH molecule:

    a) 1.5

    b) 2.5

    c) 3.5

    d) 4.5
    b) 2.5
  191. How many ATP molecules are formed in the respiratory chain during the oxidation of 1 FADH2 molecule:

    a) 1.5

    b) 2.5

    c) 3.5

    d) 4.5
    a) 1.5
  192. How many moles of ATP provide the substrates connected to the mitochondrial Complex I per mole of oxidized substrate:

    a) 1.5

    b) 2.5

    c) 3.5

    d) 4.5
    b) 2.5
  193. How many moles of ATP provide the substrates connected to the mitochondrial Complex II per mole of oxidized substrate:

    a) 1.5

    b) 2.5

    c) 3.5

    d) 4.5
    a) 1.5
  194. How many moles of ATP are formed by oxidation of reducing equivalents transported from one mole of cytoplasmic NADH into mitochondria via the glycerol phosphate shuttle:

    a) 1.5

    b) 2.5

    c) 3.5

    d) 4.5
    a) 1.5
  195. How many moles of ATP are formed by oxidation of reducing equivalents transported from one mole of cytoplasmic NADH into mitochondria via the malate-aspartate shuttle:

    a) 1.5

    b) 2.5

    c) 3.5

    d) 4.5
    b) 2.5
  196. In the inner mitochondrial membrane there is not a transporter for:

    a) ATP

    b) citrate

    c) aspartate

    d) acetyl-CoA
    d) acetyl-CoA
  197. In the inner mitochondrial membrane there is not a transporter for:

    a) ADP

    b) NADH

    c) phosphate

    d) citrate
    b) NADH
  198. How many moles of ATP are needed for phosphorylation of 1 mole of GDP to form GTP:

    a) 1

    b) 2

    c) 3

    d) 4
    a) 1
  199. How many moles of GTP are needed for phosphorylation of 1 mole of ADP to form ATP:

    a) 1

    b) 2

    c) 3

    d) 4
    a) 1
  200. The inner mitochondrial membrane is freely permeable to:

    a) O2

    b) CO2

    c) HO-

    d) H+
    a) O2

    b) CO2
  201. Biosynthesis of cholesterol directly involves:

    a) acetoacetate

    b) acetone

    c) beta-hydroxybutyrate

    d) pyruvate
    a) acetoacetate
  202. A key intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol is:

    a) methionine

    b) malate

    c) maleate

    d) mevalonate
    d) mevalonate
  203. The biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA in cholesterol biosynthesis takes place in
    the:

    a) nucleus

    b) mitochondria

    c) microsomes

    d) cytoplasm
    d) cytoplasm
  204. Under physiological conditions, enzyme activity does not depend on:

    a)temperature                                                   

    b) pressure

    c) pH

    d) concentration of substrates
    b) pressure
  205. The Km value is determined in enzymes by:

    a) maximum speed of reaction

    b) equilibrium constant of catalysed reactions

    c) reaction rate constant

    d) affinity of enzyme to substrate
    d) affinity of enzyme to substrate
  206. Enzymes 1 and 2 catalyse the same reaction. The reaction rate catalysed by enzyme 1, which has a higher Km value than enzyme 2, will at/for the same substrate concentration be:

    a) higher

    b) lower

    c) the same

    d) zero
    b) lower
  207. Maximum rate of enzyme Vmax can be measured at an infinitely large:

    a) temperature

    b) pressure

    c) pH

    d) substrate concentration
    d) substrate concentration
  208. When in the presence of a competitive inhibitor, we increase substrate concentration, the reaction rate will be:

    a) higher

    b) lower

    c) same

    d) zero
    a) higher
  209. When in the presence of a non-competitive inhibitor, we increase the substrate concentration, the
    rate of reaction will be:

    a) higher

    b) lower

    c) same

    d) zero
    c) same
  210. The basic structure of collagen consists of:

    a) one helix

    b) double helix

    c) triple helix

    d) quadruple helix
    c) triple helix
  211. Which of these amino acids in collagen is most/best represented:

    a) alanine

    b) glycine

    c) serine

    d) valine
    b) glycine
  212. Which of these amino acids in collagen is most/best represented:

    a) tyrosine

    b) tryptophan

    c) methionine

    d) proline
    d) proline
  213. Energy balance of formation/breaking of peptide bonds:

    a) facilitates its formation

    b) facilitates its breaking

    c) is the same for bond formation and breaking

    d) does not affect formation or breaking
    b) facilitates its breaking
  214. For cleavage of peptide bond by proteinases, it does not need/not necessary:

    a) supply energy in the form of ATP

    b) soluble protein

    c) to maintain the pH optimum of the enzyme

    d) preliminary protein phosphorylation
    a) supply energy in the form of ATP

    b) soluble protein

    d) preliminary protein phosphorylation
  215. The amino acid is bound to t-RNA by:

    a) ionic bond

    b) trimester bond

    c) ether bond

    d) ester bond/linkage
    d) ester bond/linkage
  216. Enzyme that synthesizes peptide bonds is:

    a) peptidylsynthase

    b) proteinsynthetase

    c) peptidyltransaminase

    d) peptidyltransferase
    d) peptidyltransferase
  217. Enzyme that synthesizes peptide bonds is:

    a) zymogen

    b) zymosan

    c) ribozyme

    d) ribosome
    c) ribozyme
  218. At the termination of protein synthesis, the polypeptide chain is transferred to:

    a) water                 

    b) m-RNA

    c) DNA

    d) ribosome
    a) water
  219. Lysosomal proteases are characterized by:

    a) high molecular weight

    b) acidic pH optimum

    c) alkaline pH optimum

    d) independent activity on pH
    b) acidic pH optimum
  220. Proteasomes participate in:

    a) protein synthesis

    b) DNA synthesis

    c) protein hydrolysis

    d) protein transport
    c) protein hydrolysis
  221. Hexokinase and glucokinase:

    a) catalyse the same reaction

    b) differ in Km  value

    c) are regulated by the same inhibitors

    d) are located together in the liver
    a) catalyse the same reaction

    b) differ in Km  value

    d) are located together in the liver
  222. Product of a reaction catalysed by hexokinase is:

    a) glucose

    b) glucose-1-phosphate

    c) glucose-6-phosphate

    d) glucose-1,6-biphosphate
    c) glucose-6-phosphate
  223. The first substrate in the pentose cycle is:

    a) glucose

    b) glucose-1-phosphate

    c) glucose-6-phosphate

    d) glucose-1,6-bisphosphate
    c) glucose-6-phosphate
  224. The product of glycogen degradation is:

    a) glucose

    b) glucose-1-phosphate

    c) glucose-6-phosphate

    d) glucose-1,6-bisphosphate
    b) glucose-1-phosphate
  225. During anaerobic glycolysis ATP is produced by:

    a) oxidation of NADH

    b) phosphoglycerate kinase reaction

    c) pyruvate kinase reaction

    d) lactate dehydrogenase reactions
    b) phosphoglycerate kinase reaction

    c) pyruvate kinase reaction
  226. In the reaction of gluconeogenesis from amino acids, glucose does not arise/form from:

    a) glycine

    b) serine

    c) leucine

    d) lysine
    c) leucine

    d) lysine
  227. During the Cori cycle, in the liver, glucose is synthesized from which of the following substrates coming from peripheral organs:

    a) glycine

    b) alanine

    c) lactate

    d) pyruvate
    c) lactate
  228. During the alanine cycle, glucose in peripheral organs is converted into:

    a) lactate

    b) pyruvate

    c) phosphoenolpyruvate

    d) oxaloacetate
    b) pyruvate
  229. The first step in hydrolysis of glycogen is catalysed by:

    a) glycogen lysis

    b) glycogen hydrolase

    c) glycogen kinase

    d) glycogen phosphorylase
    d) glycogen phosphorylase
  230. The conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate is catalysed by:

    a) phosphoglucomutase

    b) glucose isomerase

    c) glucotransferase

    d) glucoepimerase
    a) phosphoglucomutase
  231. Glycogen synthase catalyses the reaction between:

    a) 2 glucose molecules

    b) 2 glucose-1-phosphate molecules

    c) 2 glucose-6-phosphate molecules

    d) glycogen and UDP-glucose
    d) glycogen and UDP-glucose
  232. NADPH results during the pentose cycle in reaction of:

    a) glucose-1-phosphate-dehydrogenases

    b) glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenases

    c) 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases

    d) glucose oxidase
    b) glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenases

    c) 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases
  233. The maximum number of intermediate carbons of/in the pentose cycle is:

    a) 7

    b) 6

    c) 5

    d) 4
    a) 7
  234. N-glycosidic bond in glycoproteins is formed by:

    a) asparagine

    b) glutamine

    c) serine

    d) threonine
    a) asparagine
  235. O-glycosidic bond in glycoproteins is formed by:

    a) asparagine

    b) glutamine

    c) serine

    d) threonine
    c) serine

    d) threonine
  236. Hyaluronic acid is a:

    a) homopolymer of N-acetylgalactose

    b) homopolymer of glucuronic acid

    c) copolymer of glucuronic acid and N-acetylgalactose

    d) copolymer of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine
    d) copolymer of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine
  237. Proteoglycans unlike glycoproteins have:

    a) higher content of proteins

    b) higher content of sugar residues

    c) modified saccharides with sulfur groups

    d) higher lipid content
    b) higher content of sugar residues

    c) modified saccharides with sulfur groups
  238. Sugar components of proteoglycans are called:

    a) aminoglycans

    b) glycans

    c) glucuronoglycans

    d) glycosaminoglycans
    d) glycosaminoglycans
  239. Disturbance of proteoglycan metabolism leading to their accumulation are known as:

    a) steatosis

    b) cirrhosis

    c) sclerosis

    d) mucopolysaccharidosis
    d) mucopolysaccharidosis
  240. The reaction between amino- and keto-acids is catalysed by:

    a) transaminases

    b) transferases

    c) transmutases

    d) transketolases
    a) transaminases
  241. Ammonia is released from the amino acid in the effect of:

    a) pyruvate dehydrogenases

    b) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases

    c) glutamate dehydrogenases

    d) gama-glutamyltransferases
    c) glutamate dehydrogenases
  242. Synthetases differs from synthases in that they:

    a) react under anaerobiosis

    b) use an acidic environment

    c) use ATP

    d) produce ATP
    c) use ATP
  243. Ammonia can be stored in the amino acids in the form of:

    a) glycogens

    b) glykols

    c) glutamines

    d) glycerols
    c) glutamines
  244. The excess ammonia derived from the degradation of amino acids is excreted in urine as:

    a) uric acid

    b) urea

    c) aminobutyric acid

    d) melanin
    b) urea
  245. Nitrogen derived from nucleic acids is excreted in urine as:

    a) uric acid

    b) urea

    c) aminobutyric acid

    d) melanin
    a) uric acid
  246. In the biosynthesis of urea, ammonia combines at first with:

    a) NO

    b) NO2

    c) CO

    d) CO2
    d) CO2
  247. Oxidation of arginine forms:

    a) NO

    b) NO2

    c) CO

    d) CO2
    a) NO
  248. In an organism CO is produced enzymatically in the metabolism of:

    a) sugar

    b) nucleic acids

    c) heme

    d) cholesterol
    c) heme
  249. Which metabolic pathways do erythrocytes not contain:

    a) beta-oxidation of fatty acids

    b) glycogen synthesis

    c) pentose cycle

    d) protein synthesis
    a) beta-oxidation of fatty acids

    b) glycogen synthesis

    d) protein synthesis
  250. Which metabolic pathways do erythrocytes contain:

    a) glycolysis

    b) gluconeogenesis

    c) hydrolysis of glycogen

    d) fatty acid synthesis
    a) glycolysis
  251. Sickle cell anaemia benefits protection against:

    a) cholera

    b) syphilis

    c) AIDS

    d) malaria
    d) malaria
  252. Which metabolic pathways do erythrocytes contain:

    a) synthesis of amino acids

    b) synthesis of glutathione

    c) glycogen synthesis

    d) fatty acid synthesis
    b) synthesis of glutathione
  253. The affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen is decreased by:

    a) glycerol-1-phosphate

    b) 2,3-bisfosfoglycerate

    c) fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    d) glucose-6-phosphate
    b) 2,3-bisfosfoglycerate
  254. 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate is formed in:

    a) the Pentose cycle

    b) hydrolysis of lipids

    c) glycolysis

    d) glycogenolysis
    c) glycolysis
  255. Haemolytic anemia caused by reduced production of NADPH is related to the activity of:

    a) glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase

    b) glucose-6-phosphatases

    c) glucose kinases

    d) glucose oxidases
    a) glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase
  256. SERPIN is:

    a) a serotonin transporter

    b) a serine inducer

    c) a sickle cell anaemia

    d) an inhibitor of serine proteinases
    d) an inhibitor of serine proteinases
  257. Copper is transferred/transported in blood by:

    a) fibrinogen

    b) transferin

    c) ceruloplasmin

    d) ferritin
    c) ceruloplasmin
  258. Iron is transferred/transported in the blood by:

    a) fibrinogen

    b) transferin

    c) ceruloplasmin

    d) ferritin
    b) transferin
  259. Iron is stored intracellularly by:

    a) fibrinogen

    b) transferin

    c) ceruloplasmin

    d) ferritin
    d) ferritin
  260. Among acute phase protein include:

    a) fibrinogen

    b) collagen

    c) C-reactive protein

    d) keratin
    a) fibrinogen

    c) C-reactive protein
  261. Bond between amino acid and t-RNA
    Ester bond
  262. Part of transaminase
    pyridoxal phosphate
  263. In the resorptive phase is activated
    phosphofructokinase

    glycogen synthase
  264. Part of synthesis of cholesterol
    mevalonate
  265. What doesn’t activate gluconeogenesis
    carbohydrate diet
  266. Where does the urea cycle take place
    liver
  267. Affinity of foetal haemoglobin is compared to normal haemoglobin
    Higher
  268. Which of the following enzymes are involved in gluconeogenesis?

    fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate

    phosphofructose

    pyruvate kinase
    fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase
  269. What are the mobile structures of the respiratory chain
    cyt c

    ATP

    ubiquinone
  270. Which enzymes participate in the formation of peptide bonds?

    protein synthetase
    peptidyl transferase
    peptidyl synthase
    peptidyl transferase
  271. Which of the substances are directly parts of the formation of cholesterol

    pyruvate

    beta hydroxyl butyrate

    acetoacetate
    acetoacetate
  272. what do the pyrimidine bases gain from oxygen?
    CO2

    apartate
  273. Β-oxidation of odd chain length fatty acids in humans produces
    succinyl-CoA
  274. Compound that increases iron absorption in the intestine
    Vitamin C
  275. Methemoglobin reductase requires for its function
    NADH

    cytochrome b5

    FAD
  276. Synthesis of ATP is carried out by passing protons
    Across inner mitochondrial membrane to matrix
  277. Amino acid not included in urea cycle
    histidine
  278. Which hormone does not activate gluconeogenesis
    insulin
  279. In starvation, ketone bodies are not oxidized in
    erythrocytes
  280. 2 nitrogen atoms of urea in the urea cycle come
    1 from NH3

    1 from aspartate
  281. Compound that doesn’t belong to the ketone bodies produced at excessive acetyl-CoA concentration
    pyruvate

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