Infant Growth and Development

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Infant Growth and Development
2015-01-30 20:04:18
Infant Growth Development

Infant GD
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  1. Play is a chid's ____
    • WORK
    • -how they learn
    • -how they express themselves
    • -how they comfort themselves
  2. Functions of PLAY
    Sensorimotor (books with texture)

    Intellectual (putting blocks in a square)

    Socialization and Moral Development (sharing)


    Self-Awareness (baby looking in mirror...identify self as separate from parent..beginning of cognitive thought)

  3. Head circumference should be measured for the first ____ years of a child's life
    1-2 years
  4. Infant weight gain:
    • 5-7 oz per week (1/2 pound a week)
    • Doubled by 6 months
    • Tripled by 1 year
    • Quadrupled by 2 years
  5. Infant Height growth:
    1 inch per month for first 6 months
  6. Sensory changes that occur in infant:
    Auditory (at adult level during infancy already)

    • Visual
    •  -6 weeks: binocular vision still developing (cross eyed)

     -4 months: well established

     -7-9 months: gradually improves over 3 years; depth perception gets better (stereopsis)
  7. Poor or Absent Stereopsis (depth perception) is usually due to:
    Childhood Amblyopia
  8. Fine and Gross motor development in an infant occurs:
    Cephalocaudal- proximal distal

    (developmental sequence is predictable...we can tell the mom what baby will be likely doing next)
  9. Fine Motor Development: Grasping with whole hand
    2-3 months
  10. Fine Motor Development: transferring objects
    7 months
  11. Fine Motor Development: Pincer Grasp
    10 months
  12. Fine Motor Development: Building a tower of 2 blocks
    12 months
  13. Gross Motor Development: Rolling Over
    5-6 months 

    (back to tummy first...once they can flip themselves back and forth it doesn't matter how they fall asleep at night)
  14. Gross Motor Development: Sit alone
    7 months 

    Tripod sitting around 5-6 months
  15. Gross Motor Development: Prone to sitting position
    10 months
  16. As gross motor skills progress risk for ____ increases
  17. Stages of Head Control of Infant (SUPINE):
    • Complete head lag - 1 month
    • Partial head lag - 2 months
    • Almost NO head lag- 4 months
  18. Stages of Head control in Infant (PRONE)
    Momentarily lifts head - 1 month

    Lifts head/chest 90 degrees and bears weight- 4 months

    Head/chest/abdomen - 6 months
  19. Stages of Sitting for infant:
    Back is rounded, no ability to sit up - 1 month

    More controlled, still rounded, pull up with some head control - 2 months

    Back is rounded only in lumbar, infant able to sit up with good head control- 4 months

    Sit alone, leaning on hands for support - 7 months

    Sit without support - 8 months
  20. "Locomotion" development levels for infant:
    • Crawling- 6-7 months
    • Creeping- 9 months
    • Walk with assist- 11 months
    • Walk alone- 12 months (be aware in hospital)
  21. Infant crawls with abdomen on floor and pulls self forward at ___ months
    7 months
  22. Infant creeps on hands and knees at ___ months
    9 months
  23. Infants can stand and hold on to furniture at ___ months
    9 months
  24. Infants bear full weight on feet at ___ months
    7 months
  25. Infants take deliberate steps while standing at ___ months
    10 months
  26. Play for infant is :
  27. Psychosocial level for Infant:
  28. Cognitive development for Infant:
    • Sensorimotor 
    • -separation from self (3-4 months)
    • -object permanence (9 months)
    • -symbols/words (9-12 months)
  29. Example of infant solitary play leading to self-identity
    Infant looking in mirror
  30. Social development of Infant:
    • Attachment-- whoever gives most care
    • Separation Anxiety-- encourage parents to stay
    • Stranger Anxiety-- 8 to 9 months

    **PLAY as major socialization agent
  31. Stranger Anxiety usually occurs:
    8-9 months
  32. First verbal communication
  33. By age 1, infants usually know ___ words with meaning
    3-5 words

    **check hearing if baby isn't really babbling or talking by 1 year
  34. Ways to promote optimum health during infancy: NUTRITION
    Nutrition: encourage mom not to change formulas even if baby is spitting up

    Introduce solid foods (rice cereal)...inform mom to check labels and introduce foods one at a time to watch for allergies

    Weaning from breast/bottle: 9-10 months
  35. Head Circumference measurements of Infant:
    • 1/2 inch per month
    • 1/4 inch per month until 6 months
  36. Calculation of approximate adult height:
    • Add mother's and father's height
    • Add 5 inches for boys/ Subtract 5 for girls
    • Divide by 2
  37. Teething rule of thumb:
    Ages in months minus 6

    IE: 8 months = 2 teeth
  38. Pain management for teething:
    • Oragel
    • Cold teething rings
    • Baby tylenol (10/mg/kg/DOSE) ibuprofen until > 6 months (5mg/kg/DOSE)
  39. ____ most variable part of development

    (child should NOT run fever, diarrhea, etc when teething)
  40. Dental Care for Infant:
    1st Cleaning recommended at 6 months

    Use baby toothbrush or finger cotton/wash cloth

    ***if living in rural area, use supplemental fluoride (.25mg/daily)
  41. Major ways to prevent dental caries:
    • Fluoride
    • Brushing
    • *nothing to drink at bedtime!!!
  42. Babies typically sleep ___ hours /day
  43. Places for Immunization Recommendations:
    CDC (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)

    ACIP (advisory committee on immunization)

    Committee on Infectious Diseases of AAP  (American Academy of Pediatrics) -- "The Red Book"
  44. "LIVE" Vaccines for Infants:
    • MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)
    • Varicella
    • Sometimes Flu Mist
  45. DTaP
    • Diptheria, Tetanus, a-cellular Pertussis
    • (injection)
  46. IPV
    • Inactivated Polio Virus 
    • (injection)
  47. HIB
    Hemophaleous Influenza B (meningitis and ear infections)
  48. RV immunization
    Rota Virus
  49. PCV immunization
    Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine
  50. Contradiction for ANY vaccine:
    Anaphylactic reaction (life-threatening)
  51. Contraindication for LIVE attenuated vaccines:
    Immunocompromised Individuals
  52. Generally if a child has a MILD illness with a temp ____ a vaccine CAN be given

    (use clinical judgment of course)
  53. VAERS
    • Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
    • (report any adverse reaction after vaccine administration)
  54. Information that must be given to parents before administration of vaccine to child; Provides updated information for parent or guardian of child being vaccinated
    VIS- Vaccine Information Statements
  55. Major ways to prevent injuries to infant:
    • Aspiration - cut and peel food
    • Suffocation - monitor crib
    • Motor Vehicle Injuries
    • Falls
    • Poisoning
    • Burns
    • Drowning