ENGL 240 Exam 1

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  1. William Bradford
    Of Plymouth Plantation

    • voyage on the ship
    • when they landed in dawnland
  2. John Winthrop
    A Model of Christian Charity

    His greatness, His Wisdom… etc.
  3. Anne Bradstreet
    • The Prologue
    • -not a good writer
    • The Author to Her Book 
    • A Letter to Her Husband
    • Here Follows Some Verses
    • -house burning
  4. Thomas Jefferson
    The Declaration of Independence
  5. Hector Crevecoeur
    • What Is an American OR
    • Letters from an American Farmer
  6. Phillis Wheatley
    • On Being Brought from Africa to America
    • To the Right Honourable William
  7. Edgar Poe
    • Philosophy of Composition
    • The Raven
  8. Nathaniel Hawthorne
    The Birth-Mark
  9. Charlotte Gilman
    The Yellow Wallpaper
  10. Ralph Emerson
  11. Maxine Kingston
    No Name Woman
  12. What was America first called?
    Pre Colonial
    • Dawnland
    • Settled by Native Americans and visited by Europeans. 
    • Puritans met a Native American who had traveled to England and then come back
    • Indians and Puritans used/helped each other
  13. Early Writings
    • Native American Early Contact Stories
    • Writing of Bradford and Winthrop
  14. How did Bradford describe Dawnland
    • Wild Chaotic
    • Savage (eye of the beholder)
  15. Orature vs. Literature
    • Orature: stories that are spoken, exists in the mind of the culture
    • Literature: Written stories, goes on to tell a story
  16. The Puritans
    • Want to purify Church of England
    • They survived and thrived
    • They were anxious, Intolerant, and Hierarchical
    • They believed in:
    • -absolute sovereign God
    • -Constant Providential Intervention
    • -Their own "election" or "exceptionalism"
  17. Why did the puritans write?
    • To record an example for future generations, ensuring the continuity of Puritan community or beliefs
    • To instruct current generation, importance of community
  18. English Calvinists
    • English people but not Americans
    • Interpreted world entirely through a strict protestant/calvinist framework
    • Tried to reform church and create own group.
    • Puritans head over and founded Plimith foundation
  19. Two waves that came to "America"
    • 1. Pilgrams (100) were separatists of Plymouth Plantation. Believed church was beyond repair
    • 2. Others (1000) came were Massachusetts Bay Colony. Were not separatists and believed the church just needed to be cleansed
  20. Colonial Puritans Beliefs
    • Religious Tolerance
    • Political Structure (Authoritarian)
    • Exceptionalism (believed they were chosen by God to go to Heaven and had to make themselves worthy
    • Natural Depravity (believed all humans are born naturally corrupt and Jesus is the only one who can same them
  21. Three kinds of Puritan Writing
    • 1. History (William Bradford)
    • 2. Sermon (John Winthrop)
    • 3. Familiar-peoms, diaries, etc. (Anne Bradstreet)
  22. Winthrop
    • Was in the second group of Puritans to come
    • Merchants and Not Separatist
    • Purpose: was to promote charity and community in a "New World"
    • Found on principal of charity, community,and balance
  23. City on a Hill
    If achieve what God want's they shall become a city on a hill, all eyes upon them expecting them to do good
  24. Anne Bradstreet
    • A proactive puritan
    • Poetry included long meditative and philosophical poems, but is remembered one for personal "familial" poetry
    • In story about fire in keeping with puritan values, she turns immediately to God
  25. The Prologue
    • She begins with predictable Puritan humility
    • Broken Muse=her poetry is not good
    • But writes in perfect iambic pentameter
    • She is an early feminist
  26. A Letter to Her Husband
    • Drawing attention to her body
    • Metaphor to characterize her marriage
    • -she is earth he is sun and he made her cold (winter)
    • Fruits are children
    • Poem serves to remind us that affection and emotional depth could be hallmarks of Puritan relationships
  27. What happened to the Puritans?
    • Disperse, communities split
    • Indian Wars
    • Emergence of competing protestant religions
    • Time: as time goes on, harder to endure for puritans
    • Enlightenment
  28. Enlightenment
    • Values and Reason
    • Promotes skepticism
    • Education for all is good
    • Mind not soul
    • Puritans always believed things happened because of God, Enlightenment leads to practical explanation (germs=illness)
    • God is rational and Benevolent
  29. Thomas Jefferson and "The Declaration of Independence"
    • Denunciation of tyranny
    • Logically organized complaint
    • Sense of "threat"
    • Using Preface as a form of Revenge 
    • Wanted to get rid of slavery but South Carolina and Georgia wouldn't sign
  30. Key Points of Dec. of Indp.
    • All men are created equal
    • -only men not women
    • Gov are instituted, get power from people
    • Excised slavery clause
  31. Crevecoeur: What is an American
    • colonial propaganda
    • Most perfect society in the world?
    • -Social compression (no aristocracy)
    • -Hard work=proportional reward
    • -Diversity, but with some major oversights
    • -True citizenship
    • -Lack of prejudice
    • -Religious Indifference
    • -To sum it all up
  32. Phillis Wheatley
    • African American literary tradition
    • 1st African American to publish a book of poetry
    • rationalized slavery by saying they didn't have the ability to reason 
    • Bought be a quaker and Quakers believed everyone should be educated
    • Had to have white elders sign off before publishing
    • Her kidnapping was an act of mercy to save her from Africa 
    • writing to a white audience
  33. To the Right Honourable William
    • Governor in Colonies
    • Hopes he will treat colonies fairly
    • Feelings about slavery change and she hates it
    • Revisits Africa and the sorrow her parents feel
  34. American Gothic Literature: Poe, Hawthorne, and Gilman
    • Origins (abusive Britain) trade blocks
    • Precipitous rise in nationalism
    • To create terror and tangibly scare readers by stressing the irrational and the unknown
    • Narrator/Main Character: almost always the same; nervous, on edge
    • Setting: is withdrawn and remote, dark, indoors; readers often feel insane
    • Plot: narrator is being chased, pursued, haunted or otherwise bothered
    • The Double: a character or figure who in some way mirrors the narrator; often, pursuing/haunting/bothering
    • Conclusion: lack of resolution, no way out, trapped
  35. Gothic Implications
    • Gothic=reaction to Enlightenment
    • emphasizes the irrational and supernatural
  36. Edgar Allan Poe "The Raven"
    • indoors at midnight, in "Bleak December" with books
    • Lost a beautiful loved one
    • Trying to heal himself through books
    • The Bird: considered bird of ill-omen
    • -Speaks only one word and refuses explanation
    • -It will not answer because nothing can adequately answer-life's "big" questions
  37. Poe's "Philosophy of Composition"
    • Enlightenment can't answer every question
    • Their writings didn't make you feel it, it made you think
    • wants to produce and affect
    • no poem was an accident
    • There must be a reason for everything
    • This essay may be a satire/mockery of Enlightenment; faith in reason, process and progress
  38. Charlotte Perkins Gilman "The Yellow Wallpaper"
    • Old "secluded" mansion= Gothic
    • -may have previously housed the insane
    • Character: new mother, postpartum depression
    • -wandering womb syndrome
    • married to a "man of science" whose cold "reason" prevents him from listening.
    • Theme: the limits and dangers of science
    • narrator sees a double; she implies several times that things might be different if her husband/doctors listened 
    • -husband doesn't believe she is sick
    • Solution: none, continuously circling the room
  39. Hawthorne's "The Birthmark"
    • Revolutionary-era Enlightenment
    • secluded apartment/laboratory
    • science has replaced love
    • Character: Aylmer; cannot stand imperfection and is practical to remove birthmark
    • symbol of Enlightenment arrogance and reason
    • Laboratory=Hell b/c of fire, heat, torment
    • Celestial represents Georgiana; she was already and angel
  40. Transcendentalism
    • Transcendentalism is a religious movement of sorts, but it believes that God is inside rather than above
    • We are Divine
    • Best avenue to God is not via Bible, but via knowledge and cultivation of self - understand yourself 
    • Transcendentalists support Enlightenment
  41. Ralph Waldo Emerson
    • Most central figure in American literary history: everyone responds (via imitation, rejection) to his ideas
    • inspires, frustrates, and infuriates
    • Celebrity in his own times
    • helped launch Thoreau and Hawthorne
  42. Emerson's "Self Reliance"
    • Deliberate Repitition (meant to leave an "impression")
    • Essay to inspire individuals, artists, and nation
    • believe he can contribute to a stronger and noble America through writing
  43. Problem to Self Reliance
    • we are ashamed of our own divinity
    • We all have a little piece of God in us but are ashamed to let it out.
    • we are "afraid of truth"
  44. Solution to Self Reliance
    How to achieve Self Reliance
    • Nonconformity
    • Living wholly from within
    • Intuition over reason
    • A new respect for the divinity of man
    • 1.True for you in your private heart
    • 2.Act like a child
    • 3. Speak the rude truth in all ways
    • 4. Practice "solitude"
    • 5. Prepare to be misunderstood
    • 6. Live in the present
  45. How Do I know I'm not Self-Reliant?
    • You care what others think
    • Dole out compassion
    • Care about "property"
    • Quote others
  46. Points of Controversy with Self-Reliance
    • Slavery
    • Charity
    • Morality
    • Us (coming to class because we have to)
  47. Maxine Hong Kingston "No Name Woman"
    • Famous in our time
    • Tells as cautionary tale
    • Facts
    • -small, impoverished agricultural community
    • -Aunt is married then abandoned
    • -Aunt is victim of society
    • -Aunt drowns self and baby in well
    • Imagination
    • - Pregnancy is result of potion or rape
    • - Attack was assertion of community over individual
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ENGL 240 Exam 1
2015-02-03 15:37:08
ENGL 240

English 240 Test 1
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