Study Questions for Psychological and Biological Theories

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Study Questions for Psychological and Biological Theories
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2015-01-30 16:25:23
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Sociology 362 Criminology
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  1. According to Freud, the operation/function of ego is based on "the principle of moral judgment. 

    T  F
    F  

    1. change "ego" to "superego"
  2. Sigmund Freud contends that human conscience comes from the mental element of id. 

    T  F
    F


    I change "id" to "superego"
  3. MMPI, CPI, and DSM-V are measuring devices. They allow criminologists to evaluate the chromosomal configuration (chronic) criminals/delinquents. 

    T   F
    F

    3. change "chromosomal configuration" to "personality/behavioral traits"
  4. According to Hans Eysenck's cluster theory, someone may commit suicide if this person scores high on the psychoticism scale. 

    T  F
    T
  5. From "the perspective of psychology, people with t-personality are sensation seekers (t: thrill). 

    T  F
    F  

    >. change "t-personality" to "T-personality"
  6. Modern biological theorists of crime suggest that when someone's genetic makeups and/or autonomic nervous system are defective (i.e., less sensitive to external stimuli), this person may want to commit crime in order to satisfy his/her sensational needs. 

    T  F
    T
  7. The underlying assumption of biological and psychological theories of crime/delinquency is that abnormal biological and psychological makeups will make some people more susceptible to crime/delinquency. 


    T  F
    T
  8. By analyzing the family history of the Juke family, Richard Dugdale points out that crime basically is related to the process of self control. 


    T  F
    F

    change "self control" to "inheritance"
  9. Modern criminal psychologists generally agree that criminals (especially sociopaths and chronic offenders) share several personality traits in common. One of such personality features is superficially charming. 

    T  F
    T
  10. The concept sublimation means that antisocial desires and drives generated by id are diverted to socially acceptable actions. 

    T  F
    T
  11. Relatively speaking, people with low IQ are more likely to face bio-psychological problems, like attention deficit disabilities and hyperactivities. 

    T  F
    T
  12. According to the FBI's psychological profiling, one of the core personality characteristics of disorganized criminals/delinquents is that they are socially mature. 

    T  F
    F

    12. change "socially mature" to "socially immature"
  13. If we follow William Sheldon's somatotypes to analyze crime/delinquency, then we generally can predict that people with endomorphic body shape are more likely to perpetrate violent crime. 

    T  F


    13. change "violent crime" to "property crime"
  14. Both early biological and psychological theories of crime/delinquency were strongly supported by empirical evidence. 

    T  F
    F

    14. change "strongly" to "weakly"
  15. Totally, Lombroso identifies 21 physical characteristics which, he argues, may directly cause crime/delinquency. 


    T  F


    15. change "27" to "37"
  16. Freud argues that people with underdeveloped superego will actively seek punishment. 

    T  F


    16. change "underdeveloped" to "overdeveloped"
  17. Lombroso uses the two concepts of criminal man and born criminal to explain the relationship between physical features and crime/delinquency. 


    T  F
    T
  18. Modern psychological theories of crime/delinquency, crime/delinquency, should be totally disregarded because they are abstract and speculative in nature. Few concepts/variaoies, if any, can be supported by empirical evidence. 


    T F
    F

    18. They should not be totally disregarded because they can inspire criminologists to propose new theories
  19. Adolphe Quetelet argues that both average men and born criminals will exhibit invariable propensity in their behaviors. 


    T  F
    T
  20. According to criminal biologists, genetic/chromosome makeup of the so-called super males is XX Y. 


    T  F


    20. change "XXY" to "XYY"
  21. . According to sociobiology, some females get involved in crimes (especially property crimes) because their behaviors are still directed by the instinct of gathering. 


    T  F
    T
  22. According to sociobiologyy, some males got involved in crimes (especially violent crimes) because their behaviors, to an extent, are still directed by the instinct of hunting. 

    T  F
    T
  23. Compared to monozygotic/identical twins, dizygotic/fraternal twins usually will show higher degree of behavioral homogeneity (including antisocial behaviors). 

    T  F


    23. change "higher" to "lower"
  24. Adoption studies show that although the behavioral patterns of adoptive parents and children are not biologically linked, adoptive parents' delinquent behaviors, through the process of socialization, may still influence their adoptive children. 

    T  F
    T
  25. According to DSM-V, one of the behavioral characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder (or antisocial personality disorder) is that a child will argue frequently with his/her parents/legal guardians for at least 6 months. 


    T  F
    T
  26. Based on the biological and psychological explanations of crime/delinquency, we can assume that the most effective way to stop crime is having criminal offenders treated. 

    T  F
    T
  27. . Adolphe Quetelet is a positlvist. 




    T  F
    T
  28. Comparatively, biological or psychological theory of crime/delinquency alone is more convincing than theories based on the philosophy of right/left realism. 


    T  F
    F


    28.change "more" to "less"
  29. Modeling/Imitation theory of crime is developed by Sigmund Freud (i.e., Freud is the founder of modeling/imitation theory). 



    T  F
    F


    29. change "Freud" to " G. Tarde"
  30. ? Negative punishment means something undesirable is removed from a situation. 


    T  F
    F


    30. change "undesirable" to "desirable"
  31. According to cognitive theory/ prototype model will allow criminologists to describe the general characteristics of criminal offenders/victims. 


    T  F
    T
  32. According to cognitive theory, exemplar model is more suitable to describe the unique characteristics of criminal offenders/victims than prototype model. 

    T  F
    T
  33. According to Eysenck's cluster theory/ people with the following personality structure are called stable extroverts: 


    Low Extrovert + High Neurotlcism + Low Psychotlclsm 


    T  F
    F


    33. they are called neurotic introverts
  34. ^According to Eysenck's cluster theory, people with the following personality structure are called sociopaths: 

    High Extrovert + Low Neuroticism + Low Psychoticism 

    T  F
    F

    34. they are called stable extroverts
  35. According to Eysenck's cluster theory, p people with the following personality structure are called stable introverts: 

    Low Extrovert + Low Neuroticism + High Psychoticism 

    T   F
    F


    35. they are called psychotic miroveiis vpiease cnange uHow" to "High")
  36. According to Carl Jung, gays' criminal/delinquent behaviors should come from the biological/negative side of animus. 

    T  F


    36. change "animus" to "anima"
  37. People with low intelligence appear to commit more crimes than those with high intelligence. Such a difference may be due to the variation of __________rates. 

    a. incarceration 
    b. population 
    c. arrest 
    d. growth 
    e. prevalent
    C
  38. Some early psychologists believe that psychopaths have unique personality traits. Which of the following is NOT one of them? 

    a. higher threshold to punishment 
    b. extreme selfishness 
    c. higher threshold to use violence 
    d. good intelligence 
    e. shallow emotion
    C
  39. According to Freud's psychoanalytic perspective, the conflict between id and superego will produce several outcomes. One of such outcomes is projection, which means ________.

    a.  see someone's own desires/urges in young people 
    b. see someone's own desires/urges in old people 
    c.  see someone's own desires/urges in juvenile delinquents 
    d.  see someone's own desires/urges in others 
    e. see other people's desires/urges as my own
    D
  40. According to biological perspective of crime, which of the following may NOT lead to delinquent acts? 

    a. high level of testosterone 
    b. hormonal imbalance 
    c. malnutrition 
    d. chromosomal abnormality 
    e. brain dysfunction
    C
  41. In terms of crime/delinquency, modern adoption studies focus on the behavioral connections between _______and ______.

    a. biological grandfather, biological grandson 
    b. adoptive father, adopted son 
    c. biological father, adopted son 
    d. adoptive father, biological son 
    e. biological father, biological son
    E
  42. According to abnormal and personality psychologists, criminals/delinquents will exhibit certain behavioral patterns. Which of the following is NOT one of such patterns? 

    a. strong tendency to blame others 
    b. low tolerance to frustration 
    c. disregard for social norms 
    d. hysteria 
    e. persistent attitude of irresponsibility
    D
  43. Who is the founder of modern criminology? 

    a. William Sheldon 
    b. Richard Dugdale 
    c. Cesare Lombroso 
    d. Charles Goring 
    e. Adophe Quetelet
    C
  44. In Hans Eysenck's cluster theory, which personality trait is similar to Freud's concept of superego? 

    a. introversion 
    b. extroversion 
    C. psychoticism 
    d. neuroticism 
    e. b and c
    A
  45. In Hans Eysenck's cluster theory, which personality trait may lead to delinquent acts? 

    a. extroversion 
    b. psychoticism 
    c. neuroticism 
    d. introversion 
    e. a, b, and c
    E
  46. Which statement about organized criminals/delinquents in the following is NOT correct? 

    a. they will depersonalize victim 
    b. they are smart, if not genius 
    c. they usually live with partner 
    d. they prefer skilled job 
    e. they can control their mood while perpetrating a crime
    A
  47. According to Freudian theory, females are inherently ___________.

    a. jealous 
    b. passive 
    c. inferior 
    d. a, b, and c 
    e. none of the above
    D
  48. Claiming certain area as a turf is a common behavior among juvenile delinquents. This behavior, according sociobiology is related to the instinct of _________.

    a. survival 
    b. safeguard/defense 
    c. possession 
    d. search 
    e. congregation
    B
  49. The theory of atavism is suggested by ________.


    a. Adophe Quetelet 
    b- Richard Dugdale 
    c. Sigmund Freud 
    d. William Sheldon 
    e. Cesare Lombroso
    E
  50. Criminal phrenology is a concept supported by ________.

    a. Adophe Quetelet 
    b. Richard Dugdale 
    c. Sigmund Freud 
    d. William Sheldon 
    e. Cesare Lombroso
    E
  51. • The founder of German eugenics is __________.

    a. Orson Lorenzo 
    b. Cesare Lombroso 
    c. Samuel Morton 
    d. Charles Goring 
    e. Alfred Ploetz
    E
  52. According to the ideas advocated by eugenic movement, pregnant women should not _______.

    a. get involved in promiscuous sex 
    b. read pornography 
    c. use drug 
    d. talk dirty 
    e. all of the above
    E
  53. . In theory, violent behaviors are more likely to be perpetrated by people with _____level of testosterone and ______ level of serotonin. 

    a. high, high 
    b. low, high 
    c. high, low 
    d. low, low 
    e. all of the above
    C
  54. According to the law of insertion of imitation theory, "old-fashioned" antisocial behaviors will be replaced by new patterns of delinquent acts if the latter ______________.

    a. are perceived to be more risky 
    b. are perceived to be less profitable 
    c. are perceived to be more effective 
    d. are perceived to be more costly 
    e. all of the above
    C

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