Comm Ch 2

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Comm Ch 2
2015-02-02 15:15:19
Communications Test Unit1 Ch2
Ch 2
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  1. Name the 5 stages of the perception process

    • Attention
    • Selection
    • Organization
    • Interpretation
    • Evaluation
  2. In the process of perception attention is what stage in the process and is defined as...
    • the first stage
    • The process of becoming aware of people, events, or objects and attaching meaning to that awareness.
  3. In the process of perception selection is what stage of the process and is defined as...
    The second stage; focusing on specific stimuli
  4. In the process of perception organization is what step in the process and is defined as...
    • the third step of perception; organize stimuli to help make sense of our world and reduce uncertainty
    • ex: seeing a lot full of cars or organizing and finding your car in the lot
  5. definition of scripts
    Mental organization patterns that help arrange information and inform behavior
  6. In the process of perception interpretation  is what step in the process and is defined as...
    Interpretation is the fourth step; requires you to determine meaning
  7. In the process of perception evaluation is what step in the process and is defined as..
    evaluation is the fifth step; the determination of meaning or value
  8. Definition of stereotypes
    Conclusions drawn from generalizations; predictive generalizations about people or situations
  9. Define reciprocal relationships
    • how I see you; how you see yourself; how I see you
    • how you see me; how I think you see me; how you think I see you
  10. Intrapersonal communication is...
    Internalizing messages and communicating with yourself about yourself; also termed self-talk
  11. Self-concept
    The relatively stable mental image a person holds of himself or herself
  12. Self-esteem
    The value or worth a person places on himself or herself
  13. Self-fulfilling prophecy
    Events that are more likely to transpire because someone expects them to.
  14. Implicit personality theory

    Drawing conclusions about a person based on physical characteristics, personality traits, & behavior
  15. Halo Effect

    drawing conclusions about an individual based on observing a single factor (specifically-certain traits, behaviors, or personality characteristics)
  16. 4 Attribution biases

    • Fundamental Attribution bias -overestimating internal/external
    • Self-Serving bias -overestimating external/internal
    • Attractiveness bias - physically attractive/unattractive
    • Similarity bias - thinking others are similar to us
  17. The attribution of Fundamental bias means

    p.32 Table 2.3
    • Overestimating internal factors to the exclusion of external factors
    • ex: "I know Jared is late to dinner because he didn't plan time well, not because he's stuck in traffic."
  18. The Attribution of Self-Serving bias means

    p.32 Table 2.3
    Overestimating external factors to explain personal failure and overestimating internal factors to explain reasons for personal praise

    ex:"I did well on the test because I studied really hard" vs "I did poorly on the test because the professor wrote an unfair test."
  19. The Attribution of Attractiveness bias means

    p.32 Table 2.3
    • Thinking better of people who we find physically attractive as compared to people we find unattractive
    • "Sharon is really beautiful and she's so nice; it's just not her fault that she can't seem to pass math."
  20. The Attribution of Similarity bias means

    p.32 Table 2.3
    Thinking others we like are similar to us; attributing our own motivations to someone else

    ex: "Jeff and I are a lot alike; I bet he really likes J.R.R. Tolkien books as much as I do."
  21. 5 ways to improve your perception skills


    • Guarding against perceptual error
    • Gathering additional information
    • Using perception checking
    • Adjusting your perceptions
    • Practicing empathy
  22. To improve your perceptual skills how do you guard against perceptual error?

    Fast-check to support your ideas on solid information rather than on opinion

    Perception matters because we treat them as reality.
  23. To improve your perceptual skills how do you gather additional information?

    seek multiple sources of information that can help you adjust your perspectives.
  24. To improve your perceptual skills how do you use perception checking?

    Ask questions first and make statement later
  25. To improve your perceptual skills how do you adjust your perceptions?

    glean additional information to clarify your perceptions.
  26. One of the best ways to avoid perceptual error is to use ...

    perception checking
  27. What are the  perception checking steps?

    • 1. Describe the behavior you observe that you wish to clarify. It seems like you're really down today.")
    • 2. Offer at least 2 possible explanations for the observed behavior. ("Maybe you're just extra tired today, or perhaps something is wrong.")
    • 3.Ask a clarifying question. ("Is there something you'd like to talk about?")