What are the 11 levels of biological organizations?
6. Organ and Organ systems
What is the Biosphere?
The part of the earth that is inhabited by living things.
What is an ecosystem?
All of the living and non-living components of an area.
What are communities?
All the living things in an area.
What are populations?
All the individuals of one species in an area.
What are organisms?
Individuals within a population.
What are organ and organ systems?
Groups of structures that perform a vital function for the individual.
What are tissues?
Collections of similar cells that work together.
What are cells?
Small compartments that make up the tissues. They perform the basic chemistry that keeps the item alive.
What are organelles?
Small structures inside a cell.
What are molecules?
Collections of atoms bonded together.
What are atoms?
Made of small particles and they form elements. Smallest level of organization.
What is reductionism?
Separating complex systems into simpler parts.
What is a Eukaryotic cell?
Cells that contain organelles that are enclosed within membranes. Their chromosomes are located in the nucleus.
What are prokaryotic cells?
Cells that contain few organelles that are enclosed within membranes. Their one chromosome is loose within the cell.
What are chromosomes?
Made of DNA molecules. Sections of chromosomes called genes and they code for a certain characteristic.
What is a genome?
All the genetic material of an organism
What is metabolism?
All the chemical reactions necessary to maintain life.
What is taxonomy?
The science of classification.
What are the 3 domains for classifying all living things?
What are Whittaker's 5 kingdoms? And what does each contain?
Monera: contains bacteria
Protista: contains single-celled animals.
Fungus: contains mushrooms, molds, etc.
What is Anaximander and what did he propose?
He proposed the first animals lived in water and then moved on land and the first human was the child of a different type of animal.
What did Empedocles believe?
He sid that plants and animals formed from disjoined parts and came together by chance.
What did Plato argue?
Every living thing was created by God as a fixed design.
What did Augustine argue?
He argued that all living things were created with the ability to change over time.
What did Aristotle study?
He studied nature on the island of Lesbos and ranked living things as higher, closer to God, or lower closer to Hell based on complexity and their movements.
What did Epicurus propose?
Each species arose from nonliving elements in Mother Earth with no supernatural involvement.
What did Epicurus propose?
Each species arose from nonliving elements in Mother Earth with no supernatural involvement.
What did Taoist Philosophers propose?
Proposed that species develop different attributes in response to the environment, they came up with reincarnation.
What did Ibn Khaldun believe?
He believed that minerals became plants and those became snails which became animals and man. The Islam's suggested the strong should eat or destroy the weak and humans developed from monkeys.
What did Abelard and Aquinas create?
An interconnected system containing all inanimate, animate and spiritual beings.
What did Darwin believe?
He said all animals arose from a filament living in the mud.
What did Cuvier find?
Mammoth and Mastodon fossils and proposed the idea of extinction.
What did Lamarck believe?
He said all living things developed separately by spontaneous generation.
What did Robert Grant believe?
He was an atheist that said everything overtime evolved from a common ancestor.
What did Asa Gray propose?
Evolution was true by what occurred by God and not by chance.
What three theories did Charles Darwin propose and briefly explain them.
1. Natural Selection: More capable individuals survive and reproduce.
2. Descent with modification: Changed occurred in offspring resulting in new life forms.
3. Tree Diagrams: A way to show the evolution of the organism.
What did John Phillips do?
He divided time into 3 eras: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.
What are the 5 stages of the scientific method?
2. Data: 2 kinds, Qualitative and Quantitative.
3. Hypothesis: 2 types, Inductive (You are forming a general idea out of many facts) Deductive (Predicts a result from a general idea)
4. Experiment: 2 ways to test. Experimental group and control group.
5. Form a conclusion.
Describe the structure of an atom?
It has a central section called the nucleus which contains positive particles in the center of the atom called protons, they also have neutral particles in the center of the atom called neutrons. They also have negative particles called electrons in the atom. Electrons exist in the shells.
What is the small number on the periodic table?
The atomic number which is the number of protons and electrons.
What is the big number on the periodic table?
It is the atomic weight.
What does the atomic weight minus the atomic number equal?
It equals the number of neutrons.
What are Isotopes?
Elements with different number of neutrons.
What is potential energy?
What is kinetic energy?
Energy of motion.
What are valence electrons?
Electrons in an atoms outer shell and determine the atoms behavior.
What is a covalent bond?
A sharing of electrons.
What are single, double, and triple bonds.
The sharing of one, two, or three elements.
When is a bond non-polar?
When electrons are equally shared.
When is a bond considered polar?
When electrons are not equally shared, this causes the molecule to be slightly charged.
What is an ionic bond?
A transfer of electrons which produces charged atoms called ions.
What is a cation?
A positive atom.
What is an anion?
A negative atom.
What is a molecule?
two or more atoms joined together.
What is a compound?
Two or more DIFFERENT atoms joined together.
What is a hydrogen bond?
The attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen in one molecule and a slightly negative atom in another molecule.
Is water polar or non-polar?
What is a cohesion?
The linking of like molecules together with hydrogen bonds.
What is adhesion?
The clinging of one substance to a different substance.
What is surface tension?
A compression of the surface caused by uneven attraction of molecules.
What is specific heat?
It can absorb a lot of heat before changing temp.
What is heat of vaporization?
The amount of heat required to change liquid water into gas.
What is a solvent?
A substance that dissolves other things
What is a solute?
The particle being dissolved.
What does it mean when an element is hydrophobic?
The element wont dissolve into it.
What does it mean when an element is hydrophilic?
It means its attracted and will dissolve in water.
What are acids?
Compounds that release H+
What are bases?
Compounds that release OH-
What is pH?
A logarithmic measure of H+
What is a buffer?
A compound that maintains a stable pH.
What does magnification mean?
What is resolution?
Clarity and fine detail.
What is the light microscope?
It's what we use most of the time, it uses visible light and has two lenses. Ocular (What you look through) and Objective (Close to specimen)
What is an electron microscope?
It uses a beam of electrons instead of visible light and there are two main kinds. Transmission(Electrons pass through the specimen which reveal the internal structures the background is white and everything is flat.) Then there is scanning (Electrons pass over the surface showing a 3D hue)
What is cell fractionation?
Cells are broken and spun into a centrifuge and the largest parts fall to the bottom, the liquid is removed and spun again at a higher speed and the medium particles fall to the bottom. so on and so forth.
Describe the Cell membrane.
It is also called the plasma membrane and is made of two layers of lipids with proteins scattered around them.
What is cytoplasm?
It is also called cytosol and is the jelly like substance that fills the cell.
What are the organelles?
All the parts of the cell that are embedded in it. They usually have a membrane around them individually.
What is the nucleus?
It contains the chromosomes and controls the cells.
What is the nuclear membrane?
surrounds nucleus and is double layered. It also has pores to allow for transportation.
What is the nuclear lamina?
The inner membrane of nuclear membrane lined with a network of protein fibers. This maintains the shape of the nucleus.
What is the chromatin?
The chromosomes coiled around proteins.
What is the nucleolus?
The small clump made of RNA and protein in the nucleus. This makes ribosomes.
What are ribosomes?
Where proteins are made. Can be freely roaming or attached to endoplasmic reticulum.
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)?
A network of tube shaped membranes. Connected to nuclear membrane, rough and smooth. Smooth ER is able to make lipids, detoxify, or store calcium.
What is the Golgi?
It receives containers of protein from the ER and it alters packages and ships them.
What is the Cis face?
It is what merges with the containers of the ER
What is the Trans face?
What leaves through the bubbled side of the Golgi.
What are Lysosomes?
Small sacs of enzymes which break down things.
What are vesicles?
Also called vacuoles and they are containers that hold food or water.
What are mitochondrion?
This is where a major amount of ATP is made. It has an outer and inner membrane with a space in between. Inner membrane contains folds called cristae. The matrix is inside and filled with enzymes, fluid, ribosomes, nutrients, molecules.
What are peroxisomes?
They contain enzymes that contain peroxide.
What are centrioles?
Rings of tubes that make fibers.
What are the three fibers of the cytoskeleton?
Microtubules (Large fibers that help maintain shape and move chromosomes during cell division)
Microfilament (Thin fiber that helps to maintain shape and helps to change cell shape.)
Intermediate filament (Medium sizes and shapes and maintains the nucleus, also anchors the organelles in the cell)
What are the 3 projections of the cell?
Microvilli (a finger like made of microfilaments surrounded by cell membrane)
Cilia (made of microtubules surrounded by cell membrane)
Flagella (long microtubules surrounded by cell membrane.
Describe the extracellular matrix of animal cells
Made mostly of fluid and glycoproteins which are stuck together by proteoglycan which comes in two types (collagen which is a thick strong fiber and fibronectin & Laminin which are like glue and connect cells to the surroundings)
What are organic compounds?
The molecules made of carbon that make up the most compound of living things.
What is carbon and what can it do?
H It can participate in 4 bonds, single,
H-C-H double, and triple. It can also join to
H itself to create long chains.
What is a functional group?
Sets of atoms attached to a larger molecule, set to do a function.
What is a polymer?
Long molecule made of many similar building blocks joined together.
What are lipids and what is their main function?
Fats and oils and they function as membranes, hormones, and energy.
What are saturated lipids?
Single bonds with carbon.
What are unsaturated lipids?
Double bonds with carbon.
What are the different types of lipids? Explain them.
Triglycerides: these are made up of one glycerol and three fatty acids.
Phospholipids: Triglyceride with phosphate.
Steroids: 4 fused rings with cholesterol and testosterone.
What are proteins made up of?
What are the functions of proteins?
Enzymes, hormones, fibers, antibodies.
What kind of bonds can they make up?
Peptide bonds which join side by side.
What is a polypeptide?
A protein bond with many peptides.
What are the types of polypeptides?
Primary structure: string of amino acids.
Secondary structure: Coil or sheet
Tertiary: Folded coil or sheet.
Quaternary: Two or more separate proteins intertwine together.
Shapes and folds are held together by hydrogen bonds and disulfide bridges.
What is denaturation?
Disruption of the 3D protein shape.
What is x ray crystallography?
Bean of x ray is shot into a solid.
What is a nucleic acid made of?
What are the 3 parts to a nucleic acid?
Base, sugar, and one or more phosphate.
Describe the plant cell.
It has a central vacuole which is a large sac filled with water. It also has chloroplasts which are small sacs that carry photosynthesis. They contain chlorophyll and their cell wall is layers of fibers outside the cell membrane.