1.8 Autonomic Nervous System

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efrain12
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1.8 Autonomic Nervous System
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2015-01-31 12:50:14
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Autonomic Nervous System
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  1. What is the job of ANS?
    To maintain homeostasis at the subconscious level
  2. Is the ANS voluntary or involuntary?
    • involuntary
    • *voluntary is somatic
  3. What 3 things does the ANS innervates?
    -smooth muscle

    -cardiac muscle

    -glands
  4. Why is ANS a involuntary MOTOR system ?
    It innervates MOTILE involuntary muscles
  5. Figure 14.1) Function of CNS
    -integrative and control centers
  6. Figure 14.1) function of PNS
    Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body
  7. Figure 14.1) sensory division
    Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS
  8. Figure 14.1) Motor Division
    Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors
  9. Figure 14.1) which  2 branches comes from motor division ?
    ANS and SNS
  10. Figure 14.1) somatic nervous system (2)
    • -voluntary
    • *somatic motor

    -conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
  11. Figure 14.1) Autonomic nervous system (2)
    • -involuntary
    • *visceral motor

    -conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
  12. Figure 14.1) 2 parts of ANS
    -sympathetic division

    -parasympathetic division
  13. Figure 14.1) parasympathetic division (2)
    -conserves energy

    -promotes nonemergency functions
  14. Figure 14.1) Sympathetic division
    -mobilizes body systems during emergency situations
  15. # of neuron system: Somatic
    • 1
    • *it takes one neuron to connect to the intended target
  16. # of neuron system: ANS
    • 2
    • *takes two neurons to connect to the intended target
  17. Degree of myelination: Somatic
    • Heavy
    • *class A
  18. Degree of myelination: ANS (2)
    -light or unmyelinated

    *class B or Class C
  19. Post-gangliotic NT type: Somatic
    Ach
  20. Post-gangliotic NT type: Sympathetic
    • NE
    • *mainly
  21. Post-gangliotic NT type: Para-sympathetic
    Ach
  22. NT effect: Somatic
    excite only
  23. NT effect: ANS
    Effects depends on receptor
  24. Target Organ type: Somatic
    Skeletal msucles
  25. Target organ type: ANS (3)
    -smooth muscles

    -cardiac muscles

    -glands
  26. Typically, in the ANS, degree of myelination of pre-gang and post-gang?
    Pre gang: light myelinated

    Post- gang: unmyelinated
  27. What is a ganglion?
    Collection of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS
  28. Which works faster, SNS or ANS?
    SNS because it is more myelinated
  29. What is significant about the effect of sympathetic and parasympathetic NTs?
    They are receptor dependent
  30. What does receptor dependent mean?
    Means that it can be excitatory or inhibitory depending on the type of post-synaptic receptor on the target organ
  31. Parasympathetic system) function (2)
    -Resting and digesting

    -stores and conserves energy
  32. The D system
    (3)
    -digestion

    -diuresis

    -defecation

    **parasympathetic system
  33. Slud system (4)
    -salivation

    -lacrimation

    -urination

    -defecation
  34. Sympathetic system) activates?
    Emergency and threatening situations
  35. E system (4)
    -exercise

    -excitement

    -emergency

    -embarrassment
  36. What is nicknamed, brains of the gut?
    Enteric nervous system
  37. What is the enteric nervous system part of?
    The gut
  38. What is significant about enteric nervous system?
    -it is influenced by both ANS branches but functions independently of all nervous systems control centers
  39. Enteric nervous system: nerve plexus located in walls of intestinal organs & mucosa are involved in controlling?
    (2)
    • -peristalsis
    • *movement of the gut

    -gastrointestinal secretions
  40. Cranio-sacral system
    Parasympathetic system

    *vagal & sacral nerves
  41. Parasympathetic system) where are the preganglionic neurons located in? (2)
    -brainstem

    -sacral region
  42. Parasympathetic system) 4 CN involved
    -III

    -VII

    -IX

    -X
  43. Parasympathetic system) sacral region of spinal cord (3)
    -S2

    -S3

    -S4
  44. 2 ways parasympathetic contributes to CNs (2)
    -pre gang nerve body originates in brainstem near CN nuclei originate

    -long fiber (axon) piggyback travels with CN to ganglion near target organ
  45. Parasympathetic system) CN III: Innervates (2)
    -sphincter papillary muscle

    -culinary muscle of the eye
  46. Parasympathetic system) CN III, what results from CNIII enervating the 2 structures? (2)
    -contracts pupil

    -thickens the lens

    **needed for focusing on close objects
  47. Parasympathetic system) CN III, path to the 2 structures it innervates (2)
    -pre gang to ciliary ganglion

    -post gang from ciliary ganglion to the sphincter papillary muscle & culinary muscle of the eye
  48. Parasympathetic system) CN VII:  Innervates (2)
    -lacrimal gland

    • -submandibular and sublingual glands
    • *large salivary glands of the mouth
  49. Parasympathetic system) CN VII: function from enervating the 2 structures? (2)
    --lacrimation

    -increases watery saliva production
  50. Parasympathetic system) CN VII: path to innervates lacrimal gland  (2)
    -pre gang to pterygopalatine ganglion

    -post gang to lacrimal gland
  51. Parasympathetic system) CN VII: path to innervates large salivary glands of the mouth (2)
    -pre gang to submandibular ganglion

    -post gang to sublingual and submandibular gland
  52. Parasympathetic system) CN IX: innervates
    • -parotid gland
    • *large salivary gland
  53. Parasympathetic system) CN IX: function for innervating the gland?
    Increases watery saliva production
  54. Parasympathetic system) CN IX: path to innervate parotid gland (2)
    Pre gang to optic ganglion

    Post gang to parotid gland
  55. Parasympathetic system) CN X:  innervates (2)
    • -organs in the neck, thorax, and abdomen
    • *ventral cavity

    -reaches as far as the proximal 1/3 of the colon
  56. Parasympathetic system) CN X: functions
    • -widely promotes rest/digest activity
    • *vagus supplies 90% of all pre gang in parasympathetic
  57. Intramural ganglia?
    Ganglia located in nerve peruses near target organs or in organ walls
  58. Parasympathetic system) sacral component: S2-s4 called?
    Pelvic splanchnic nerves
  59. Parasympathetic system) sacral component:S2-S4 innervates (3)
    -distal 2/3 of colon

    -pelvic organs

    -genitals
  60. Parasympathetic system) sacral component: where are the ganglia located?
    In the walls of target organs
  61. Parasympathetic NS: pre and post ganglionic fibers (2)
    -long pre gang fibers to ganglion near of in the organ wall

    -short post gang fibers
  62. Sympathetic NS: Pre v Post gang fibers  (2)
    -short preganglionic fibers to chain ganglia close to vertebral column

    -long post gang fibers
  63. Sympathetic post gang fibers) adrenal medullary acts as
    Post gang cells and release E/ne into the blood vascular system for a slower acting response that last longer
  64. Post gang/neurons =
    Initial fast response
  65. Post gang/medullary cells =
    Slow prolonged response

    *allows us to keep running and running from the bear
  66. Thoraco-lumbar system
    Sympathetic system
  67. sympathetic system) where are the pre gang neurons located in the S.C?
    Lateral horn of thoracic and upper lumbar
  68. paravertebral ganglia?
    Sympathetic chain
  69. Around how Manny pairs are there of paravertebral ganglia?
    23-25
  70. What connects the sympathetic trunk ganglion?
    Sympathetic trunk
  71. 3 pathways of sympathetic innervation
    -synapse at the same elvel

    -synapse at a higher or lower level

    -synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column
  72. Synapse at the same level pathway description
    -pre gang begins at the lateral horn which sends axons out through ventral root to join ventral ramus of spinal nerve. ventral ramus gives off a white ramus communicans which enters at the sympathetic trunk ganglion at its associated level in order to synapse at the same level with post gang neuron. An unmyelinated post gang neuron exists at this level (gray ramus communicans) to travel long distance to intended target organ
  73. Synapse at a higher or lower level pathway overview
    • Pre gang neuron originate from lateral horn entering sympathetic trunk ganglion by which white ramus communicans & post gang exiting through grey ramus communicans to reach eventual target
    • ***these synapse at lower and higher levels  above T1 and below L2
    • **look at the pic
  74. Synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column pathway
    • Pre gang does not synapse at the sympathetic trunk ganglion & goes through a distant collateral ganglion
    • *these innervates the many organs of thoracic-abdominal & pelvic cavities
  75. Are sympathetic chain ganglia bilateral>?
    yes
  76. What are NTs used for?
    To communicate between cells
  77. Pre-gang of both ANS divisions use...
    Ach only
  78. Acetylcholine releasing fibers are termed...
    cholinergic fibers
  79. Which fibers release acetylcholine ? (2)
    • -all pre gang axons
    • *Para and sympathetic

    -parasympathetic post gang axon at their effector organs
  80. Norepinephrine releasing fibers are termed...
    Adrenergic fibers
  81. Norepinephrine is released at
    Almost all sympathetic post gang axons at their effector organs
  82. Receptors for Ach and Ne may be... (2)
    Excitatory or inhibitory
  83. Cholinergic receptors binds to
    Acetylcholine
  84. Adrenergic receptors binds to
    Norepinephrine or epinephrine
  85. 2 types of cholinergic receptors
    -nicotinic receptors

    -muscarinic receptors
  86. Cholinergic receptors ) Nicotinic receptors
    • Always stimulatory
    • *skeletal muscle and all ANS pre gang
  87. Cholinergic receptors ) muscarininc receptors
    May be inhibitor or excitatory

    • *inhibit to heart
    • *excitatory to gut
  88. 2 types of andrenergic receptors
    -alpha

    -beta
  89. Adrenergic receptors ) alpha receptors
    Usually stimulatory
  90. Adrenergic receptors ) beta receptors
    Usually inhibitory

    *dilating vessels
  91. What releases epinephrine?
    Adrenal medulla
  92. Where is epinephrine released into?
    Mostly into the blood vascular system upon stimulation by the pre gang fires of the sympathetic NS
  93. What does epinephrine produces?
    A generalized and prolonged sympathetic response
  94. Parasympathetic effects) eyes-iris (2)
    -stimulates sphincter pupillae msucles

    -constricts pupils
  95. Parasympathetic effects) eyes -cilairy muscles
    • -stimulates muscle
    • *makes lens bulge for close vision
  96. Parasympathetic effects) Glands

    Nasal, lacrimal, gastric, pancreas
    Stimulates secretory activity
  97. Parasympathetic effects) salivary glands
    Stimulates secretion of watery saliva
  98. Parasympathetic effects) sweat glands
    • No effect
    • *no innervation
  99. Parasympathetic effects) adrenal glands
    • No effect
    • *no innervation
  100. Parasympathetic effects) arrector pill muscles attaches to hair follicles
    No effect
  101. Parasympathetic effects) heart -muscle
    • Decreases rate
    • *slows heart
  102. Parasympathetic effects) heart- coronary blood vessells
    No effect
  103. Parasympathetic effects) urinary bladder/urethra (3)
    -contracts smooth muscle of bladder wall

    -relaxes urethral sphincter

    -promotes voiding
  104. Parasympathetic effects) lungs
    Contricts bronchioles
  105. Sympathetic effects ) Eyes -iris
    • -stimulates dilatory pupillae msucle
    • *dilates pupils
  106. Sympathetic effects ) eye- ciliarymsucle
    • -weakly inhibits muscle
    • *flattens the lens for far vision
  107. Sympathetic effects ) glands

    Nasal, lacrimal, gastric, pancreas (2)
    -inhibits secretory activity

    -constricts blood vessels supplying the glands
  108. Sympathetic effects ) salivary glands
    -stimulates secretion of thick, viscous saliva
  109. Sympathetic effects ) sweat glands
    Stimulates copious sweating
  110. Sympathetic effects ) adrenal glnds
    -stimulates medulla cells to secrete epinephrine and Norepinephrine
  111. Sympathetic effects ) arrecotr pilli msucles
    • Stimulates contraction
    • *erects hairs for Goosebumps
  112. Sympathetic effects ) heart msucle
    Increases rate and force of heartbeat
  113. Sympathetic effects ) heart coronary blood vessels
    • Dilates blood vessels
    • *vasodilation
  114. Sympathetic effects ) urinary bladder/urethra (3)
    -relaxes smooth muscle of bladder wall

    -inhibits voiding

    -contracts urinal sphincter
  115. Sympathetic effects ) lungs
    Dilates bronchioles
  116. ANs regulation primarily by
    Hypothalamus through connections to brainstem and spinal cord
  117. How can cerebral cortex influence the ANS?
    Through limbic system
  118. Parasympathetic effects on male and female orgnas
    • Vasodilation
    • *erection of penis and clitoris
  119. effect on reproductive organs that sympathetic has
    • Ejaculation
    • *involuntary muscle contraction

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