Parasympathetic system) sacral component: where are the ganglia located?
In the walls of target organs
Parasympathetic NS: pre and post ganglionic fibers (2)
-long pre gang fibers to ganglion near of in the organ wall
-short post gang fibers
Sympathetic NS: Pre v Post gang fibers (2)
-short preganglionic fibers to chain ganglia close to vertebral column
-long post gang fibers
Sympathetic post gang fibers) adrenal medullary acts as
Post gang cells and release E/ne into the blood vascular system for a slower acting response that last longer
Post gang/neurons =
Initial fast response
Post gang/medullary cells =
Slow prolonged response
*allows us to keep running and running from the bear
sympathetic system) where are the pre gang neurons located in the S.C?
Lateral horn of thoracic and upper lumbar
Around how Manny pairs are there of paravertebral ganglia?
What connects the sympathetic trunk ganglion?
3 pathways of sympathetic innervation
-synapse at the same elvel
-synapse at a higher or lower level
-synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column
Synapse at the same level pathway description
-pre gang begins at the lateral horn which sends axons out through ventral root to join ventral ramus of spinal nerve. ventral ramus gives off a white ramus communicans which enters at the sympathetic trunk ganglion at its associated level in order to synapse at the same level with post gang neuron. An unmyelinated post gang neuron exists at this level (gray ramus communicans) to travel long distance to intended target organ
Synapse at a higher or lower level pathway overview
Pre gang neuron originate from lateral horn entering sympathetic trunk ganglion by which white ramus communicans & post gang exiting through grey ramus communicans to reach eventual target
***these synapse at lower and higher levels above T1 and below L2
**look at the pic
Synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column pathway
Pre gang does not synapse at the sympathetic trunk ganglion & goes through a distant collateral ganglion
*these innervates the many organs of thoracic-abdominal & pelvic cavities
Are sympathetic chain ganglia bilateral>?
What are NTs used for?
To communicate between cells
Pre-gang of both ANS divisions use...
Acetylcholine releasing fibers are termed...
Which fibers release acetylcholine ? (2)
-all pre gang axons
*Para and sympathetic
-parasympathetic post gang axon at their effector organs
Norepinephrine releasing fibers are termed...
Norepinephrine is released at
Almost all sympathetic post gang axons at their effector organs
Receptors for Ach and Ne may be... (2)
Excitatory or inhibitory
Cholinergic receptors binds to
Adrenergic receptors binds to
Norepinephrine or epinephrine
2 types of cholinergic receptors
Cholinergic receptors ) Nicotinic receptors
*skeletal muscle and all ANS pre gang
Cholinergic receptors ) muscarininc receptors
May be inhibitor or excitatory
*inhibit to heart
*excitatory to gut
2 types of andrenergic receptors
Adrenergic receptors ) alpha receptors
Adrenergic receptors ) beta receptors
What releases epinephrine?
Where is epinephrine released into?
Mostly into the blood vascular system upon stimulation by the pre gang fires of the sympathetic NS
What does epinephrine produces?
A generalized and prolonged sympathetic response
Parasympathetic effects) eyes-iris (2)
-stimulates sphincter pupillae msucles
Parasympathetic effects) eyes -cilairy muscles
*makes lens bulge for close vision
Parasympathetic effects) Glands
Nasal, lacrimal, gastric, pancreas
Stimulates secretory activity
Parasympathetic effects) salivary glands
Stimulates secretion of watery saliva
Parasympathetic effects) sweat glands
Parasympathetic effects) adrenal glands
Parasympathetic effects) arrector pill muscles attaches to hair follicles