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What is the job of ANS?
To maintain homeostasis at the subconscious level
Is the ANS voluntary or involuntary?
- *voluntary is somatic
What 3 things does the ANS innervates?
Why is ANS a involuntary MOTOR system ?
It innervates MOTILE involuntary muscles
Figure 14.1) Function of CNS
-integrative and control centers
Figure 14.1) function of PNS
Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body
Figure 14.1) sensory division
Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS
Figure 14.1) Motor Division
Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors
Figure 14.1) which 2 branches comes from motor division ?
ANS and SNS
Figure 14.1) somatic nervous system (2)
-conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
Figure 14.1) Autonomic nervous system (2)
- *visceral motor
-conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
Figure 14.1) 2 parts of ANS
Figure 14.1) parasympathetic division (2)
-promotes nonemergency functions
Figure 14.1) Sympathetic division
-mobilizes body systems during emergency situations
# of neuron system: Somatic
- *it takes one neuron to connect to the intended target
# of neuron system: ANS
- *takes two neurons to connect to the intended target
Degree of myelination: Somatic
Degree of myelination: ANS (2)
-light or unmyelinated
*class B or Class C
Post-gangliotic NT type: Somatic
Post-gangliotic NT type: Sympathetic
Post-gangliotic NT type: Para-sympathetic
NT effect: Somatic
NT effect: ANS
Effects depends on receptor
Target Organ type: Somatic
Target organ type: ANS (3)
Typically, in the ANS, degree of myelination of pre-gang and post-gang?
Pre gang: light myelinated
Post- gang: unmyelinated
What is a ganglion?
Collection of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS
Which works faster, SNS or ANS?
SNS because it is more myelinated
What is significant about the effect of sympathetic and parasympathetic NTs?
They are receptor dependent
What does receptor dependent mean?
Means that it can be excitatory or inhibitory depending on the type of post-synaptic receptor on the target organ
Parasympathetic system) function (2)
-Resting and digesting
-stores and conserves energy
The D system
Slud system (4)
Sympathetic system) activates?
Emergency and threatening situations
E system (4)
What is nicknamed, brains of the gut?
Enteric nervous system
What is the enteric nervous system part of?
What is significant about enteric nervous system?
-it is influenced by both ANS branches but functions independently of all nervous systems control centers
Enteric nervous system: nerve plexus located in walls of intestinal organs & mucosa are involved in controlling?
- *movement of the gut
*vagal & sacral nerves
Parasympathetic system) where are the preganglionic neurons located in? (2)
Parasympathetic system) 4 CN involved
Parasympathetic system) sacral region of spinal cord (3)
2 ways parasympathetic contributes to CNs (2)
-pre gang nerve body originates in brainstem near CN nuclei originate
-long fiber (axon) piggyback travels with CN to ganglion near target organ
Parasympathetic system) CN III: Innervates (2)
-sphincter papillary muscle
-culinary muscle of the eye
Parasympathetic system) CN III, what results from CNIII enervating the 2 structures? (2)
-thickens the lens
**needed for focusing on close objects
Parasympathetic system) CN III, path to the 2 structures it innervates (2)
-pre gang to ciliary ganglion
-post gang from ciliary ganglion to the sphincter papillary muscle & culinary muscle of the eye
Parasympathetic system) CN VII: Innervates (2)
- -submandibular and sublingual glands
- *large salivary glands of the mouth
Parasympathetic system) CN VII: function from enervating the 2 structures? (2)
-increases watery saliva production
Parasympathetic system) CN VII: path to innervates lacrimal gland (2)
-pre gang to pterygopalatine ganglion
-post gang to lacrimal gland
Parasympathetic system) CN VII: path to innervates large salivary glands of the mouth (2)
-pre gang to submandibular ganglion
-post gang to sublingual and submandibular gland
Parasympathetic system) CN IX: innervates
- -parotid gland
- *large salivary gland
Parasympathetic system) CN IX: function for innervating the gland?
Increases watery saliva production
Parasympathetic system) CN IX: path to innervate parotid gland (2)
Pre gang to optic ganglion
Post gang to parotid gland
Parasympathetic system) CN X: innervates (2)
- -organs in the neck, thorax, and abdomen
- *ventral cavity
-reaches as far as the proximal 1/3 of the colon
Parasympathetic system) CN X: functions
- -widely promotes rest/digest activity
- *vagus supplies 90% of all pre gang in parasympathetic
Ganglia located in nerve peruses near target organs or in organ walls
Parasympathetic system) sacral component: S2-s4 called?
Pelvic splanchnic nerves
Parasympathetic system) sacral component:S2-S4 innervates (3)
-distal 2/3 of colon
Parasympathetic system) sacral component: where are the ganglia located?
In the walls of target organs
Parasympathetic NS: pre and post ganglionic fibers (2)
-long pre gang fibers to ganglion near of in the organ wall
-short post gang fibers
Sympathetic NS: Pre v Post gang fibers (2)
-short preganglionic fibers to chain ganglia close to vertebral column
-long post gang fibers
Sympathetic post gang fibers) adrenal medullary acts as
Post gang cells and release E/ne into the blood vascular system for a slower acting response that last longer
Post gang/neurons =
Initial fast response
Post gang/medullary cells =
Slow prolonged response
*allows us to keep running and running from the bear
sympathetic system) where are the pre gang neurons located in the S.C?
Lateral horn of thoracic and upper lumbar
Around how Manny pairs are there of paravertebral ganglia?
What connects the sympathetic trunk ganglion?
3 pathways of sympathetic innervation
-synapse at the same elvel
-synapse at a higher or lower level
-synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column
Synapse at the same level pathway description
-pre gang begins at the lateral horn which sends axons out through ventral root to join ventral ramus of spinal nerve. ventral ramus gives off a white ramus communicans which enters at the sympathetic trunk ganglion at its associated level in order to synapse at the same level with post gang neuron. An unmyelinated post gang neuron exists at this level (gray ramus communicans) to travel long distance to intended target organ
Synapse at a higher or lower level pathway overview
- Pre gang neuron originate from lateral horn entering sympathetic trunk ganglion by which white ramus communicans & post gang exiting through grey ramus communicans to reach eventual target
- ***these synapse at lower and higher levels above T1 and below L2
- **look at the pic
Synapse in a distant collateral ganglion anterior to the vertebral column pathway
- Pre gang does not synapse at the sympathetic trunk ganglion & goes through a distant collateral ganglion
- *these innervates the many organs of thoracic-abdominal & pelvic cavities
Are sympathetic chain ganglia bilateral>?
What are NTs used for?
To communicate between cells
Pre-gang of both ANS divisions use...
Acetylcholine releasing fibers are termed...
Which fibers release acetylcholine ? (2)
- -all pre gang axons
- *Para and sympathetic
-parasympathetic post gang axon at their effector organs
Norepinephrine releasing fibers are termed...
Norepinephrine is released at
Almost all sympathetic post gang axons at their effector organs
Receptors for Ach and Ne may be... (2)
Excitatory or inhibitory
Cholinergic receptors binds to
Adrenergic receptors binds to
Norepinephrine or epinephrine
2 types of cholinergic receptors
Cholinergic receptors ) Nicotinic receptors
- Always stimulatory
- *skeletal muscle and all ANS pre gang
Cholinergic receptors ) muscarininc receptors
May be inhibitor or excitatory
- *inhibit to heart
- *excitatory to gut
2 types of andrenergic receptors
Adrenergic receptors ) alpha receptors
Adrenergic receptors ) beta receptors
What releases epinephrine?
Where is epinephrine released into?
Mostly into the blood vascular system upon stimulation by the pre gang fires of the sympathetic NS
What does epinephrine produces?
A generalized and prolonged sympathetic response
Parasympathetic effects) eyes-iris (2)
-stimulates sphincter pupillae msucles
Parasympathetic effects) eyes -cilairy muscles
- -stimulates muscle
- *makes lens bulge for close vision
Parasympathetic effects) Glands
Nasal, lacrimal, gastric, pancreas
Stimulates secretory activity
Parasympathetic effects) salivary glands
Stimulates secretion of watery saliva
Parasympathetic effects) sweat glands
Parasympathetic effects) adrenal glands
Parasympathetic effects) arrector pill muscles attaches to hair follicles
Parasympathetic effects) heart -muscle
- Decreases rate
- *slows heart
Parasympathetic effects) heart- coronary blood vessells
Parasympathetic effects) urinary bladder/urethra (3)
-contracts smooth muscle of bladder wall
-relaxes urethral sphincter
Parasympathetic effects) lungs
Sympathetic effects ) Eyes -iris
- -stimulates dilatory pupillae msucle
- *dilates pupils
Sympathetic effects ) eye- ciliarymsucle
- -weakly inhibits muscle
- *flattens the lens for far vision
Sympathetic effects ) glands
Nasal, lacrimal, gastric, pancreas (2)
-inhibits secretory activity
-constricts blood vessels supplying the glands
Sympathetic effects ) salivary glands
-stimulates secretion of thick, viscous saliva
Sympathetic effects ) sweat glands
Stimulates copious sweating
Sympathetic effects ) adrenal glnds
-stimulates medulla cells to secrete epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Sympathetic effects ) arrecotr pilli msucles
- Stimulates contraction
- *erects hairs for Goosebumps
Sympathetic effects ) heart msucle
Increases rate and force of heartbeat
Sympathetic effects ) heart coronary blood vessels
- Dilates blood vessels
Sympathetic effects ) urinary bladder/urethra (3)
-relaxes smooth muscle of bladder wall
-contracts urinal sphincter
Sympathetic effects ) lungs
ANs regulation primarily by
Hypothalamus through connections to brainstem and spinal cord
How can cerebral cortex influence the ANS?
Through limbic system
Parasympathetic effects on male and female orgnas
- *erection of penis and clitoris
effect on reproductive organs that sympathetic has
- *involuntary muscle contraction