Medicine Through Time

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Author:
PoppyG
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294400
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Medicine Through Time
Updated:
2015-01-31 12:27:11
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GCSE History Medicine
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GCSE,History
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GCSE History Medicine Through Time
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  1. When was writing developed in Egypt?
    3000BC
  2. When was the Cult of Asclepius popular?
    400BC
  3. When was the Hippocratic Corpus?
    420-350BC
  4. When was the birth of Galen?
    129AD
  5. When was the fall of Rome?
    476AD
  6. When was the synod of Whitby?
    663AD
  7. When was the life of Avicenna?
    980-1037AD
  8. When was the Black Death?
    1348AD
  9. When was printing developed in Europe?
    1454
  10. When was the founding of the royal society?
    1660
  11. When was inoculation introduced in Britain?
    1720
  12. When was the first vaccination?
    1796
  13. When did Cholera hit Britain?
    1831
  14. When did Chadwick report?
    1842
  15. When were Ether and Chloroform in use?
    1846/7
  16. When was the 1st public health act?
    1848
  17. When was cholera linked to water pollution (John Snow)?
    1854
  18. When was the germ theory (Louis Pasteur)?
    1857
  19. When was the public health act?
    1875
  20. When was antiseptic in general use?
    1890
  21. When were the first Xrays?
    1895
  22. When did Bequerel discover radioactivity?
    1896
  23. When were blood groups discovered?
    1900
  24. When were the liberal reforms?
    1906
  25. When was penicillin discovered (Alexander Fleming)?
    1928
  26. When was the Second World War?
    1939-45
  27. When was the first kidney transplant?
    1951
  28. When was the structure of DNA identified?
    1953
  29. When was the pill discovered?
    Late 1950s
  30. When was AIDS discovered?
    1981
  31. When was Imhotep?
    2600s BC
  32. When was Pythagoras?
    500s BC
  33. When was Hippocrates?
    460-377 BC
  34. When was Aristotle?
    384-322 BC
  35. When was Galen?
    129-199 AD
  36. When was Avicenna?
    980-1037
  37. When was Paré?
    1510-1590
  38. When was Vesalius?
    1514-1564
  39. When was Harvey?
    1578-1657
  40. When was Lady Montagu?
    1689-1762
  41. When was Jenner?
    1749-1823
  42. When was Pasteur?
    1822-1895
  43. When was Nightingale?
    1820-1910
  44. When was Lister?
    1827-1912
  45. When was Garrett Anderson?
    1836-1917
  46. When was Koch?
    1843-1910
  47. When was Becquerel?
    1852-1908
  48. When was Marie Curie?
    1867-1934
  49. When was Beveridge?
    1879-1963
  50. When was Fleming?
    1881-1955
  51. When was Bevan?
    1897-1960
  52. When was Crick?
    1916-2004
  53. When was Watson?
    1928-present
  54. When was Barnard?
    1922-2001
  55. What is defined as pre-history?
    The time before written records.
  56. When did Britain's pre-history end?
    • 43 AD
    • Thanks to the Romans
  57. What can archaeology tell us about prehistoric people?
    • Cave paintings and other prehistoric artwork suggest they believed in a spiritual world
    • It is likely their explanations would be based on evil spirits
    • Their cures would have been spiritual or religious
    • Archaeology tells us our prehistoric ancestors were nomadic hunter-gatherers
    • Lived in small extended family groups and followed game
  58. What would the progress in Pre-Historic medicine have been like?
    • Slow
    • Infrequency of mass gatherings and lack of writing would have affected it
    • Excavations of ancient burials tell us their attitudes to human remains
    • Some cultures moved the remains around with them and may have brought them out for ceremonial processes
    • Fine and delicate stone tools have been found (often made of flint and obsidian) which show some surgery was feesable
  59. How can Aboriginal cultures tell us about Pre-Historic medicine?
    • Ancient artifacts and artwork often similar to modern aboriginal creations
    • Some modern aboriginal medicine combines basic practical methods like setting broken bones with clay and bandaging with spiritual explanations of illness and cure
    • Witch doctors, shamans and medicine men were credited with treating the sick
    • Rituals and sacrifice often involved with preventing and dealing with medicine
  60. What is archaeopathology?
    • The study of ancient disease
    • The study of ancient bodies to see what diseases and health problems they had, how they were treated, and how the people died
  61. What are the limitations of archaeopathology?
    • Most pre-historic bodies have decayed to just bones or even further 
    • You wouldn't be able to tell if someone had died from a heart attack
    • You wouldn't be able to tell if someone had surgery on soft tissue
  62. How can we use archaeopathology on per-historic bodies?
    • Some bodies, preserved in ice, peat bogs or by mummification still have soft tissues remaining
    • They are able to tell us about prehistoric health and medicine
  63. What is trepanning?
    • The cutting of holes in the head 
    • Skulls can show people survived the operation because the bone had started to grow again
    • May have been to allow evil spirits out
    • May have been to grant special powers of communication with the spirit world
    • Modern evidence that trepanning can lead to altered mental sensations
    • Can be done by doctors when head injuries lead to a build up of pressure inside the skull
    • Ancient trepanning could have been done for medical reasons
  64. How did the Ancient Egyptians rely on the River Nile?
    • Every year the nile fertilised the fields and the river provided water for irrigation
    • Barges on the nile enabled fairly swift transportation and communication making trade and government easier
  65. When was the Ancient Egyptian period?
    3400-30 BC
  66. Who ruled the Ancient Egyptian world?
    • The Gods
    • Amulets, charms and rituals were used to avoid and cure illness
  67. Who was Sehkmet?
    • The Goddess of War
    • She sent and cured epidemics
  68. Who was Thoth?
    • God
    • Gave doctors the ability to cure
  69. Who was Imhotep?
    • Pharaoh Zoser's doctor in about 2630 BC
    • Adopted as the God of healing 
    • Doctors were respected people
  70. What was The Book of Thoth?
    • Contained the accepted treatments and spells
    • The book hasn't survived but papyrus with spells, potions and procedures do. These were probably taken from The Book of Thoth
  71. What is opium?
    • A drug used in Egyptian times
    • Still used today
  72. How did Egyptians figure out what was wrong with them?
    • They diagnosed
    • Diagnosis means the observation of a patient and the recognition of their symptoms
  73. What was mummification?
    • Preserving the dead bodies
    • The Egyptians believed the human body would be needed in the afterlife
    • They extracted the soft organs (e.g. brain and intestines)
    • Then they dried what remained with salt - this gave them some knowledge of anatomy
    • They believed that destroying someone's body meant they wouldn't go to the afterlife - therefore no experimental dissection
  74. How did Egyptians use willow?
    • Papyrus outlines some of the small surgical procedures they performed
    • They used willow after surgery and to treat wounds
    • It contains salicylic acid (a mild antiseptic and the original source of aspirin)
  75. How did the Egyptians link The River Nile and medicine?
    • They likened the channels in the river to channels in our bodies
    • They thought if one of the channels was blocked, it could lead to disease
    • To clear the channels/heal they vomited, purged, and bled
    • Was not believed by everyone and did not replace spiritual beliefs
  76. What were the Egyptian views on diet?
    • They knew it was important
    • Medical procedures included recommended food
  77. What were the Egyptian views on cleanliness?
    • They valued it
    • They bathed, shaved their heads and had toilets
    • They changed their clothes regularly
    • Made life more comfortable (due to the climate)
    • Also had religious significance
    • Priests often washed more than others and would have shaved their whole bodies before ceremonies
    • Egyptian toilets have been found - no sewage system so would have had to be emptied manually
    • Developed mosquito nets, which would have helped malaria (although this was not the point)
  78. Who were the ancient Greek?
    • Not necessarily just people who lived in Greece
    • People who lived the way the ancient Greek did
    • Ancient Greek culture
  79. What was the Greek civilisation made up of?
    Independent city states around the shores of the Mediterranean and Black Sea
  80. When did Greek culture flourish?
    Around 700 and 300 BC
  81. Who influenced the Ancient Greek medicine?
    Egyptians
  82. Who did the Greek believe ruled the world?
    • Many Gods
    • Told and wrote down heroic tales (myths) about people, Gods and monsters
    • They also loved to debate
  83. What were the systems of medicine in the Greek period?
    • One was based on religion
    • Another was based on logical philosophy
  84. Who was Asclepius?
    • The Greek God of healing
    • His temples were called Asclepions - people went to stay in them when they were ill
    • The cult was popular in the 5th and 4th centuries BC
    • Visitors had to undergo ceremonial washing in the sea, make a sacrifice to the God and sleep in a building called an abaton
    • An abaton was a narrow building with a roof but no solid walls 
    • Whilst sleeping in an abaton, Asclepius was supposed to come and cure them in a dream
    • The snake is the sacred animal of Asclepius and can still be seen in the logos of many medial organisations
    • Successes were engraved onto the walls of the Asclepions
    • Hygeia and Panacea (Asclepius' daughters) were also involved in healing
  85. What was the role of women in Greek medicine?
    They were allowed to be doctors
  86. What were Greek philosophers like?
    • Tried to explain things rationally
    • Sought to devise rational explanations and logical codes of conduct
    • Attracted bands of followers such as the Brotherhood of Pythagoras
    • Religion was interwoven with their logic
  87. Who was Thales of Miletus?
    • The founder of Greek philosophy
    • Thought water was the basis of life
    • 580 BC
  88. Who was Anaximander?
    • 560 BC
    • Said all things were made of four elements - earth, water, fire, air
  89. Who was Pythagoras?
    • 580-500 BC
    • Thought life was about the balance of opposites
  90. Who was Hippocrates?
    • 460-377 BC
    • Acknowledged as the founding father of modern medicine
    • Born on the island of Kos
    • Travelled, taught medicine in Kos, died in Larissa
    • Associated with the Hippocratic Oath and the Hippocratic Corpus
  91. What is the Hippocratic Oath?
    • A promise made by doctors to obey the rules of behaviour in their professional lives
    • Medical ethics are based on it
  92. What is the Hippocratic Corpus?
    • A collection of medical books
    • Some may have been written by Hippocrates or his followers
    • Probably what survived of the library of the Kos School of Medicine
  93. What were the ideas of the Hippocratic Corpus?
    • Hippocrates saw the healthy body as being in balance
    • He thought illness was an imbalance of the elements
    • 'Airs, Waters and Places' looks for environmental causes for disease - not Gods or Spirits
    • 'Prognostic', 'Coan Prognostic' and 'Aphorisms' improved on the Egyptian ideas of diagnosis - by studying enough cases, Doctors could learn to predict the course of an illness
  94. What is the Clinical Method for Observation?
    • Encouraged in the Hippocratic Corpus
    • Four-step method for treating illness
    • DIAGNOSIS - study the symptoms
    • PROGNOSIS - consider and predict
    • OBSERVATION - observe, note, compare
    • TREATMENT - treat with confidence
    • No action should be taken before a reliable diagnosis has been made
    • Illnesses should be left to run their course - we call this Minimum Intervention
  95. What were the Greek Lifestyle Regimens?
    • 'A Regimen for Health' and 'Regimen in Acute Diseases' (from Hippocratic Corpus) recommended lifestyles for healthy living or recovery from illness
    • Believed exercise helped to keep healthy. Many men and boys spent a lot of time in the gymnasium
    • Hygiene was important
    • Ancient Athens had a system which brought in clean water through clay pipes
    • Diet changed with the seasons - eat lots but drink little in winter, swap in the summer
    • Amount of sleep and exercises required by people was advised
  96. Who was Aristotle?
    • 384-322 BC
    • Developed the Hippocratic balance of elements to suggest the body was made up of four fluids or humours (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile)
    • Four humours linked to the four seasons
    • Humours needed to be balanced for good health
  97. What was Alexandria?
    • Alexander the great (tutored by Aristotle) founded Alexandria in 331 BC as his new capital city
    • The library attempted to amass all the knowledge of the world
    • Human dissection allowed
    • For a short time vivisection (dissection whilst still alive) for condemned criminals was allowed
    • Became famous for training medics and surgeons
  98. Who was Herophilus?
    • 335-280 BC
    • Compared human and animal anatomy 
    • Worked on the nervous system
    • Correctly identified the connections to the brain
    • Thought nerves were vessels carrying pneuma or life force
  99. Who was Erasistratus?
    • 250 BC
    • Identified the differences between arteries, veins and nerves
    • Saw nerves were not hollow so couldn't be vessels for fluids
  100. How good was Greek surgery?
    • A last resort
    • The mechanics improved but anaesthetics, antiseptics and understanding germs and infection were far in the future
    • Risky
    • Patient often died from trauma or infections
    • Most treatments performed outside the body
    • One exception was draining of lungs infected with pneumonia
    • Came up with good ways of setting broken bones but in extreme cases amputated
    • Range of surgical instruments made from iron, steel and brass
    • Some ancient Greek texts describe eye surgery
  101. Did the Romans except Greek medicine?
    • Not for a while
    • A plague in 293 BC led Romans to build an Asclepion in Rome. They brought a sacred snake from Epidaurus for it
    • It became a public hospital, offering treatments for the poor and slaves
    • Julius Caesar allowed doctors to become Roman citizens in 46 BC
  102. Why did Roman medicine improve?
    • Romans were very practical
    • Realised to build an Empire you need a strong and healthy army
    • State paid for public doctors and hospitals for wounded soldiers called 'valetudinaria'
    • Roman Army had doctors who carried out operations such as removing arrows from soldiers
    • Surgery became more advanced 
    • They were able to remove bladder stones and cataracts 
    • They had increasingly effective sets of instruments
  103. Who was Galen?
    • Supported theories of Hippocrates on ethics and observation
    • Believed in four humours
    • Increased his anatomical knowledge by dissecting animals
    • Made some mistakes (rete mirabile existence and liver shape)
    • Believed blood started life in the liver then passed around the body picking up spirits
    • Believed blood was consumed rather than recirculated
    • Thought the nervous system was part of this (^) process
    • Believed in treatment by opposites (balance of the humours)
    • Famously removed the infected breast stone of a patient
  104. What was the Roman approach to public health?
    • Preventative
    • Noticed exposure to bad smells, unclean drinking water, sewage, swamps and dirt
    • Built aqueducts to carry clean water into cities
    • Built public baths, toilets and sewers to remove waste
    • Drained swamps that were near towns
  105. Who was Dioscorides?
    • He wrote without mentions of superstitions
    • A Greek doctor
    • Born in Turkey
    • 'De Materia Medica' was the first book on plants as medicines without lots of superstition
  106. What was Galen's reputation?
    • Lasted for centuries
    • Had great influence on the doctors in the Arabic world and in medieval Christian Europe
    • Writings covered all aspects of medicine
    • Writing very persuasive. Did not stress the polytheistic (more than one God) so didn't offend monotheistic thiests

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