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When was writing developed in Egypt?
When was the Cult of Asclepius popular?
When was the Hippocratic Corpus?
When was the birth of Galen?
When was the fall of Rome?
When was the synod of Whitby?
When was the life of Avicenna?
When was the Black Death?
When was printing developed in Europe?
When was the founding of the royal society?
When was inoculation introduced in Britain?
When was the first vaccination?
When did Cholera hit Britain?
When did Chadwick report?
When were Ether and Chloroform in use?
When was the 1st public health act?
When was cholera linked to water pollution (John Snow)?
When was the germ theory (Louis Pasteur)?
When was the public health act?
When was antiseptic in general use?
When were the first Xrays?
When did Bequerel discover radioactivity?
When were blood groups discovered?
When were the liberal reforms?
When was penicillin discovered (Alexander Fleming)?
When was the Second World War?
When was the first kidney transplant?
When was the structure of DNA identified?
When was the pill discovered?
When was AIDS discovered?
When was Imhotep?
When was Pythagoras?
When was Hippocrates?
When was Aristotle?
When was Galen?
When was Avicenna?
When was Vesalius?
When was Harvey?
When was Lady Montagu?
When was Jenner?
When was Pasteur?
When was Nightingale?
When was Lister?
When was Garrett Anderson?
When was Becquerel?
When was Marie Curie?
When was Beveridge?
When was Fleming?
When was Bevan?
When was Crick?
When was Watson?
When was Barnard?
What is defined as pre-history?
The time before written records.
When did Britain's pre-history end?
- 43 AD
- Thanks to the Romans
What can archaeology tell us about prehistoric people?
- Cave paintings and other prehistoric artwork suggest they believed in a spiritual world
- It is likely their explanations would be based on evil spirits
- Their cures would have been spiritual or religious
- Archaeology tells us our prehistoric ancestors were nomadic hunter-gatherers
- Lived in small extended family groups and followed game
What would the progress in Pre-Historic medicine have been like?
- Infrequency of mass gatherings and lack of writing would have affected it
- Excavations of ancient burials tell us their attitudes to human remains
- Some cultures moved the remains around with them and may have brought them out for ceremonial processes
- Fine and delicate stone tools have been found (often made of flint and obsidian) which show some surgery was feesable
How can Aboriginal cultures tell us about Pre-Historic medicine?
- Ancient artifacts and artwork often similar to modern aboriginal creations
- Some modern aboriginal medicine combines basic practical methods like setting broken bones with clay and bandaging with spiritual explanations of illness and cure
- Witch doctors, shamans and medicine men were credited with treating the sick
- Rituals and sacrifice often involved with preventing and dealing with medicine
What is archaeopathology?
- The study of ancient disease
- The study of ancient bodies to see what diseases and health problems they had, how they were treated, and how the people died
What are the limitations of archaeopathology?
- Most pre-historic bodies have decayed to just bones or even further
- You wouldn't be able to tell if someone had died from a heart attack
- You wouldn't be able to tell if someone had surgery on soft tissue
How can we use archaeopathology on per-historic bodies?
- Some bodies, preserved in ice, peat bogs or by mummification still have soft tissues remaining
- They are able to tell us about prehistoric health and medicine
What is trepanning?
- The cutting of holes in the head
- Skulls can show people survived the operation because the bone had started to grow again
- May have been to allow evil spirits out
- May have been to grant special powers of communication with the spirit world
- Modern evidence that trepanning can lead to altered mental sensations
- Can be done by doctors when head injuries lead to a build up of pressure inside the skull
- Ancient trepanning could have been done for medical reasons
How did the Ancient Egyptians rely on the River Nile?
- Every year the nile fertilised the fields and the river provided water for irrigation
- Barges on the nile enabled fairly swift transportation and communication making trade and government easier
When was the Ancient Egyptian period?
Who ruled the Ancient Egyptian world?
- The Gods
- Amulets, charms and rituals were used to avoid and cure illness
Who was Sehkmet?
- The Goddess of War
- She sent and cured epidemics
Who was Thoth?
- Gave doctors the ability to cure
Who was Imhotep?
- Pharaoh Zoser's doctor in about 2630 BC
- Adopted as the God of healing
- Doctors were respected people
What was The Book of Thoth?
- Contained the accepted treatments and spells
- The book hasn't survived but papyrus with spells, potions and procedures do. These were probably taken from The Book of Thoth
What is opium?
- A drug used in Egyptian times
- Still used today
How did Egyptians figure out what was wrong with them?
- They diagnosed
- Diagnosis means the observation of a patient and the recognition of their symptoms
What was mummification?
- Preserving the dead bodies
- The Egyptians believed the human body would be needed in the afterlife
- They extracted the soft organs (e.g. brain and intestines)
- Then they dried what remained with salt - this gave them some knowledge of anatomy
- They believed that destroying someone's body meant they wouldn't go to the afterlife - therefore no experimental dissection
How did Egyptians use willow?
- Papyrus outlines some of the small surgical procedures they performed
- They used willow after surgery and to treat wounds
- It contains salicylic acid (a mild antiseptic and the original source of aspirin)
How did the Egyptians link The River Nile and medicine?
- They likened the channels in the river to channels in our bodies
- They thought if one of the channels was blocked, it could lead to disease
- To clear the channels/heal they vomited, purged, and bled
- Was not believed by everyone and did not replace spiritual beliefs
What were the Egyptian views on diet?
- They knew it was important
- Medical procedures included recommended food
What were the Egyptian views on cleanliness?
- They valued it
- They bathed, shaved their heads and had toilets
- They changed their clothes regularly
- Made life more comfortable (due to the climate)
- Also had religious significance
- Priests often washed more than others and would have shaved their whole bodies before ceremonies
- Egyptian toilets have been found - no sewage system so would have had to be emptied manually
- Developed mosquito nets, which would have helped malaria (although this was not the point)
Who were the ancient Greek?
- Not necessarily just people who lived in Greece
- People who lived the way the ancient Greek did
- Ancient Greek culture
What was the Greek civilisation made up of?
Independent city states around the shores of the Mediterranean and Black Sea
When did Greek culture flourish?
Around 700 and 300 BC
Who influenced the Ancient Greek medicine?
Who did the Greek believe ruled the world?
- Many Gods
- Told and wrote down heroic tales (myths) about people, Gods and monsters
- They also loved to debate
What were the systems of medicine in the Greek period?
- One was based on religion
- Another was based on logical philosophy
Who was Asclepius?
- The Greek God of healing
- His temples were called Asclepions - people went to stay in them when they were ill
- The cult was popular in the 5th and 4th centuries BC
- Visitors had to undergo ceremonial washing in the sea, make a sacrifice to the God and sleep in a building called an abaton
- An abaton was a narrow building with a roof but no solid walls
- Whilst sleeping in an abaton, Asclepius was supposed to come and cure them in a dream
- The snake is the sacred animal of Asclepius and can still be seen in the logos of many medial organisations
- Successes were engraved onto the walls of the Asclepions
- Hygeia and Panacea (Asclepius' daughters) were also involved in healing
What was the role of women in Greek medicine?
They were allowed to be doctors
What were Greek philosophers like?
- Tried to explain things rationally
- Sought to devise rational explanations and logical codes of conduct
- Attracted bands of followers such as the Brotherhood of Pythagoras
- Religion was interwoven with their logic
Who was Thales of Miletus?
- The founder of Greek philosophy
- Thought water was the basis of life
- 580 BC
Who was Anaximander?
- 560 BC
- Said all things were made of four elements - earth, water, fire, air
Who was Pythagoras?
- 580-500 BC
- Thought life was about the balance of opposites
Who was Hippocrates?
- 460-377 BC
- Acknowledged as the founding father of modern medicine
- Born on the island of Kos
- Travelled, taught medicine in Kos, died in Larissa
- Associated with the Hippocratic Oath and the Hippocratic Corpus
What is the Hippocratic Oath?
- A promise made by doctors to obey the rules of behaviour in their professional lives
- Medical ethics are based on it
What is the Hippocratic Corpus?
- A collection of medical books
- Some may have been written by Hippocrates or his followers
- Probably what survived of the library of the Kos School of Medicine
What were the ideas of the Hippocratic Corpus?
- Hippocrates saw the healthy body as being in balance
- He thought illness was an imbalance of the elements
- 'Airs, Waters and Places' looks for environmental causes for disease - not Gods or Spirits
- 'Prognostic', 'Coan Prognostic' and 'Aphorisms' improved on the Egyptian ideas of diagnosis - by studying enough cases, Doctors could learn to predict the course of an illness
What is the Clinical Method for Observation?
- Encouraged in the Hippocratic Corpus
- Four-step method for treating illness
- DIAGNOSIS - study the symptoms
- PROGNOSIS - consider and predict
- OBSERVATION - observe, note, compare
- TREATMENT - treat with confidence
- No action should be taken before a reliable diagnosis has been made
- Illnesses should be left to run their course - we call this Minimum Intervention
What were the Greek Lifestyle Regimens?
- 'A Regimen for Health' and 'Regimen in Acute Diseases' (from Hippocratic Corpus) recommended lifestyles for healthy living or recovery from illness
- Believed exercise helped to keep healthy. Many men and boys spent a lot of time in the gymnasium
- Hygiene was important
- Ancient Athens had a system which brought in clean water through clay pipes
- Diet changed with the seasons - eat lots but drink little in winter, swap in the summer
- Amount of sleep and exercises required by people was advised
Who was Aristotle?
- 384-322 BC
- Developed the Hippocratic balance of elements to suggest the body was made up of four fluids or humours (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile)
- Four humours linked to the four seasons
- Humours needed to be balanced for good health
What was Alexandria?
- Alexander the great (tutored by Aristotle) founded Alexandria in 331 BC as his new capital city
- The library attempted to amass all the knowledge of the world
- Human dissection allowed
- For a short time vivisection (dissection whilst still alive) for condemned criminals was allowed
- Became famous for training medics and surgeons
Who was Herophilus?
- 335-280 BC
- Compared human and animal anatomy
- Worked on the nervous system
- Correctly identified the connections to the brain
- Thought nerves were vessels carrying pneuma or life force
Who was Erasistratus?
- 250 BC
- Identified the differences between arteries, veins and nerves
- Saw nerves were not hollow so couldn't be vessels for fluids
How good was Greek surgery?
- A last resort
- The mechanics improved but anaesthetics, antiseptics and understanding germs and infection were far in the future
- Patient often died from trauma or infections
- Most treatments performed outside the body
- One exception was draining of lungs infected with pneumonia
- Came up with good ways of setting broken bones but in extreme cases amputated
- Range of surgical instruments made from iron, steel and brass
- Some ancient Greek texts describe eye surgery
Did the Romans except Greek medicine?
- Not for a while
- A plague in 293 BC led Romans to build an Asclepion in Rome. They brought a sacred snake from Epidaurus for it
- It became a public hospital, offering treatments for the poor and slaves
- Julius Caesar allowed doctors to become Roman citizens in 46 BC
Why did Roman medicine improve?
- Romans were very practical
- Realised to build an Empire you need a strong and healthy army
- State paid for public doctors and hospitals for wounded soldiers called 'valetudinaria'
- Roman Army had doctors who carried out operations such as removing arrows from soldiers
- Surgery became more advanced
- They were able to remove bladder stones and cataracts
- They had increasingly effective sets of instruments
Who was Galen?
- Supported theories of Hippocrates on ethics and observation
- Believed in four humours
- Increased his anatomical knowledge by dissecting animals
- Made some mistakes (rete mirabile existence and liver shape)
- Believed blood started life in the liver then passed around the body picking up spirits
- Believed blood was consumed rather than recirculated
- Thought the nervous system was part of this (^) process
- Believed in treatment by opposites (balance of the humours)
- Famously removed the infected breast stone of a patient
What was the Roman approach to public health?
- Noticed exposure to bad smells, unclean drinking water, sewage, swamps and dirt
- Built aqueducts to carry clean water into cities
- Built public baths, toilets and sewers to remove waste
- Drained swamps that were near towns
Who was Dioscorides?
- He wrote without mentions of superstitions
- A Greek doctor
- Born in Turkey
- 'De Materia Medica' was the first book on plants as medicines without lots of superstition
What was Galen's reputation?
- Lasted for centuries
- Had great influence on the doctors in the Arabic world and in medieval Christian Europe
- Writings covered all aspects of medicine
- Writing very persuasive. Did not stress the polytheistic (more than one God) so didn't offend monotheistic thiests