Kaplan Organic Chemistry Chapter 1

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Kaplan Organic Chemistry Chapter 1
2015-01-31 14:09:03

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  1. when does oxidation state increase?
    • with more bonds to heteroatoms (atoms besides carbon and hydrogen
    • and decrease with more bonds to hydrogen
  2. what happens if there is a tie between assigning priority to molecule with double and triple bonds
    double bonds take precedence
  3. where does the substituents name come in?
  4. how is the highest priority group named in the compound?
    determines the suffix for the compound and must be part of the parent group.
  5. what do names always begin with?
    alphabeticalized order of each substituents preceded by its number (prefixes like di, tri, and tetra, n-, tert- are ignored)
  6. what takes precedence, double bond or OH?
    • OH b/c most oxidized (-ol)
    • if OH not highest priority, then hydroxyl is (hydrox-)
  7. how are alcohols with two hydroxyl groups indicated?
    diols or glycols
  8. how are aldehydes named?
    replacing the -e of parent alkane with -al
  9. methanal common name
  10. ethanal common name
  11. propanal common name
  12. how are ketones named?
    replacing the ane with one
  13. what is the smallest possible ketone
  14. how do we name aldehyde and ketones as substituents and when?
    • when a higher priority group takes precedence over the carbonyl
    • we use the prefix oxo
  15. which is the alpha carbon?
    carbon adjacent to the carbonyl
  16. what is the most oxidized functional group on the MCAT?
    carboxylic acids
  17. methanoic acid common name
    formic acid
  18. ethanoic acid common name
    acetic acid
  19. propionic acid common name
    propanoic acid
  20. what are esters?
    • carboxylic acid derivatives
    • when OH is replaced with alkoxyl gropu (-OR)
    • parent acid ends in -oate
  21. amides
    • another group of carboxylic acid derivatives
    • hydroxyl group replaced with amino group.
    • substituents attached to the nitrogen atom are labeled with capital N-
  22. anhydrides
    • one water molecule is removed
    • formed between two carboxylic acid molecules
  23. geminal diols
    diols with hydroxyl groups on the same carbon
  24. vicinal diols
    diols with hydroxyl gropus on adjacent carbons
  25. methyl formate common name and functional group
    methyl methanoate
  26. acetyl
    two carbon unit with one carbon in carbonyl group