Kaplan Organic Chemistry Chapter 1
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when does oxidation state increase?
- with more bonds to heteroatoms (atoms besides carbon and hydrogen
- and decrease with more bonds to hydrogen
what happens if there is a tie between assigning priority to molecule with double and triple bonds
double bonds take precedence
where does the substituents name come in?
how is the highest priority group named in the compound?
determines the suffix for the compound and must be part of the parent group.
what do names always begin with?
alphabeticalized order of each substituents preceded by its number (prefixes like di, tri, and tetra, n-, tert- are ignored)
what takes precedence, double bond or OH?
- OH b/c most oxidized (-ol)
- if OH not highest priority, then hydroxyl is (hydrox-)
how are alcohols with two hydroxyl groups indicated?
diols or glycols
how are aldehydes named?
replacing the -e of parent alkane with -al
methanal common name
ethanal common name
propanal common name
how are ketones named?
replacing the ane with one
what is the smallest possible ketone
how do we name aldehyde and ketones as substituents and when?
- when a higher priority group takes precedence over the carbonyl
- we use the prefix oxo
which is the alpha carbon?
carbon adjacent to the carbonyl
what is the most oxidized functional group on the MCAT?
methanoic acid common name
ethanoic acid common name
propionic acid common name
what are esters?
- carboxylic acid derivatives
- when OH is replaced with alkoxyl gropu (-OR)
- parent acid ends in -oate
- another group of carboxylic acid derivatives
- hydroxyl group replaced with amino group.
- substituents attached to the nitrogen atom are labeled with capital N-
- one water molecule is removed
- formed between two carboxylic acid molecules
diols with hydroxyl groups on the same carbon
diols with hydroxyl gropus on adjacent carbons
methyl formate common name and functional group
two carbon unit with one carbon in carbonyl group
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