1.9 endocrine anatomy
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Endocrine system (2)
-controlling system of the body that works with the N.S
-coordinates and integrates the activity of the body's cells
Endocrine glands can be..(4)
-isolated structure or organ
-part of a larger organ
-few cells or a single cell
-widely distributed throughout the body
What are hormones?
chemical messengers synthesize by the cells of the endocrine system
What do hormones influence?
The metabolic activity of other cells
What are the target cells or organs of hormones?
The cells they affect
Significant difference between rapid nervous system and hormones?
hormone effects take longer to begin than the rapid nervous system but they have prolonged effects
Endocrine cell arrangement) (2)
-endocrine organs have cells arranged in cords, clusters, or follicles
- -surrounded by numerous blood vessels
- *to empty their contents into blood stream
Difference between exocrine and endocrine?
Endocrine are doubtless glands while exocrine release product into a duct system
How are glandular epithelium developed?
By ingrown of epithelial tissue that will form ducts
What is a gland?>
- One of more cells that produce a product
- *exocrine or endocrine
Release into ducts still connected to surface of the epithelium
secrete into blood vessel located near the cells
Pathway from endocrine to target organs
-endocrine glands relaxes hormones into blood vascular system surrounding it, then blood distributes the hormones, then hormones act on target organs
examples of target cells
affect immediately surrounding cells
*I give heart to my valentine
- Affect themselves
- *same cell
Where is the pituitary gland housed?
Within sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
What does pituitary gland release?
Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Which 2 hormones does the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland store?
**these are produced in hypothalamus
Which lobe of pit gland an extension of hypothalamus?
What forms the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract?
Axons of paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei which descend down through infidibulum and post lobe
Sequence to how both hormones end up in postlobe (3)
-ADH and oxytocin produced in the hypothalamus in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
-transported to posterior lobe pit gland via the hypothalamic-hypopheseal tract
-ADH and oxytocin stored in axon terminals till they receive signals to be released
Anterior lobe of pit gland
What is anterior lobe composed off?
Glandular tissue that manufactures and releases a number of hormones
hypophyseal portal system , what is it?
- Vascular network which transports releasing and inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus to anterior lobe
- *stop and go signals
What controls the hormonal secretions of the anterior lobe?
Linear sequence of hypophyseal portal system
-arteries > primary cap plexus > veins > secondary capillary plexus > veins
***usually arteries> cap plexus > veins
Sequence of hypophesyeal portal system
- Artery delivers blood to primary cap plexus. Chemical signals of body arrive in nerve terminals and are relaxed into primary cap plexus as they travel to secondary cap plexus through veins. At 2nd cap plexus, inhibiting/releasing factors may interact with glandular tissue of adenohypophysis. Hormones relaxed here are delivered to blood by veins that leave ant lobe
- *look at picture
Function of intermediate lobe?
- No function in adults
- *located between ant and post lobe
Description of thryiod gland
Butterfly shaped gland in anterior neck
2 hormones thyroid gland produces?
Where does thyroid gland produce thyroid hormone?
From fluid filled follicles
Where does thyroid gland produce calcitonin?
From parafollicular cells located between the follicles
What are thyroid hormones invoked in?
General metabolic rate
Role of calcitonin ?
Involved in calcium balance
What are parathyroid glands
2-8 small glands located on the posterior side of the thyroid gland
What procures parathyroid hormone?
Chief cells/principle cells in parathyroid glands
What is parathyroid hormone invoked in?
Function of larger oxyphil cells?
Parathyroid hormone antagonist to
What does the thymus secrete?
- Hormones involved in maturation of the immune system
Thymus AND chidlren
Very large in children after puberty it starts to become a fatty mass
Where are adrenal glands located?
Paired glands that sit on top of the kidneys
2 layers of adrenal gland
3 zonas in cortex of adrenal medulla
Zone in medulaa
adrenal cortex) what does each layer produce?
Different type of corticosteroid
mineralocorticoids; aldosterone (water balance)
glucocorticoids; cortisol (stress and metabolism)
gonadocorticoids ; androgens (puberty)
Medulla of adrenal gland is part of
Sympathetic ANS branch
Medulla from adrenal gland secretes
80 epinephrine to 20 Norepinephrine
Where is the pancreas located?
Partially behind the stomach, elongated shape
Both endocrine and exocrine functions
Pancreas ) cells of pancreas
Pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
Endocrine of pancreas )What do pancreatic islets secrete ?
- Insulting and glucagon
- *glucose metabolism
What are pancreas cells related to endocrine?
Pancreas, endocrine portion: alpha cells secret
Pancreas, endocrine portion: beta cells secxret
Pancreas, endocrine portion: delta cells secrete
Pancreas, exocrine portion for digestion
acinar cells and duct cells
2 functions of gonads
- *test or EST/progest
master controller of endocrine systems?
What is hypothalamus composed of?
Several clusters of neurons or nuclei
How does hypothalamus controls the ant lobe pit gland regarding released of hormones?
Portal system allows hypothalamus to send stop&go factors signals to ant lobe for control of master gland activity
Small intestine and stomach ) what do they contained?
contain gut-associated endocrine cells (enteroendocrine cells) to regulate digestion
***may be paracrine in nature or relaxed into vascular system
What do enteroendocrine cells release?
Several peptide hormones to regulate digestive functions
Kidneys: unidentified cells produce
Kidneys: what does Erythropoietin do?
Increases RBC production
Heart: what do specialized cardiac muscle cells produce?
atria natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Heart: what does ANP do?
Functions in controlling blood pressure
Placenta: what fdoees it produce?
- -estrogen/progesterone and human chronic gonadotropin (hcG)
- *temp endocrine organ
What is recognized by pregnancy tests
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