1.9 endocrine anatomy

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1.9 endocrine anatomy
2015-01-31 14:18:40

Endocrine anatomy
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  1. Endocrine system (2)
    -controlling system of the body that works with the N.S

    -coordinates and integrates the activity of the body's cells
  2. Endocrine glands can be..(4)
    -isolated structure or organ

    -part of a larger organ

    -few cells or a single cell

    -widely distributed throughout the body
  3. What are hormones?
    chemical messengers synthesize by the cells of the endocrine system
  4. What do hormones influence?
    The metabolic activity of other cells
  5. What are the target cells or organs of hormones?
    The cells they affect
  6. Significant difference between rapid nervous system and hormones?
    hormone effects take longer to begin than the rapid nervous system but they have prolonged effects
  7. Endocrine cell arrangement) (2)
    -endocrine organs have cells arranged in cords, clusters, or follicles

    • -surrounded by numerous blood vessels
    • *to empty their contents into blood stream
  8. Difference between exocrine and endocrine?
    Endocrine are doubtless glands while exocrine release product into a duct system
  9. How are glandular epithelium developed?
    By ingrown of epithelial tissue that will form ducts
  10. What is a gland?>
    • One of more cells that produce a product
    • *exocrine or endocrine
  11. Exocrine
    Release into ducts still connected to surface of the epithelium
  12. Endocrine  (2)
    No ducts

    secrete into blood vessel located near the cells
  13. Pathway from endocrine to target organs
    -endocrine glands relaxes hormones into blood vascular system surrounding it, then blood distributes the hormones, then hormones act on target organs
  14. examples of target cells
    -bone marrow

    -skeletal msucle

  15. paracrine cells
    affect immediately surrounding cells

    *I give heart to my valentine
  16. autocrine cells
    • Affect themselves
    • *same cell
  17. hypophysis
    Pituitary gland
  18. Where is the pituitary gland housed?
    Within sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
  19. What does pituitary gland release?
    Growth hormone
  20. Neurohypophysis
    Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
  21. Which 2 hormones does the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland store?
    -antidiuretic hormone


    **these are produced in hypothalamus
  22. Which lobe of pit gland an extension of hypothalamus?
    Post lobe
  23. What forms the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract?
    Axons of paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei which descend down through infidibulum and post lobe
  24. Sequence to how both hormones end up in postlobe (3)
    -ADH and oxytocin produced in the hypothalamus in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei

    -transported to posterior lobe pit gland via the hypothalamic-hypopheseal tract

    -ADH and oxytocin stored in axon terminals till they receive signals to be released
  25. adenohypophysis
    Anterior lobe of pit gland
  26. What is anterior lobe composed off?
    Glandular tissue that manufactures and releases a number of hormones
  27. hypophyseal portal system , what is it?
    • Vascular network which transports releasing and inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus to anterior lobe
    • *stop and go signals
  28. What controls the hormonal secretions of the anterior lobe?
  29. Linear sequence of hypophyseal portal system
    -arteries > primary cap plexus > veins > secondary capillary plexus > veins

    ***usually arteries> cap plexus > veins
  30. Sequence of hypophesyeal portal system
    • Artery delivers blood to primary cap plexus. Chemical signals of body arrive in nerve terminals and are relaxed into primary cap plexus as they travel to secondary cap plexus through veins. At 2nd cap plexus, inhibiting/releasing factors may interact with glandular tissue of adenohypophysis. Hormones relaxed here are delivered to blood by veins that leave ant lobe
    • *look at picture
  31. Function of intermediate lobe?
    • No function in adults
    • *located between ant and post lobe
  32. Description of thryiod gland
    Butterfly shaped gland in anterior neck
  33. 2 hormones thyroid gland produces?
    -thyroid hormone

  34. Where does thyroid gland produce thyroid hormone?
    From fluid filled follicles
  35. Where does thyroid gland produce calcitonin?
    From parafollicular cells located between the follicles
  36. What are thyroid hormones invoked in?
    General metabolic rate
  37. Role of calcitonin ?
    Involved in calcium balance
  38. What are parathyroid glands
    2-8 small glands located on the posterior side of the thyroid gland
  39. What procures parathyroid hormone?
    Chief cells/principle cells in parathyroid glands
  40. What is parathyroid hormone invoked in?
    Calcium balance
  41. Function of larger oxyphil cells?
  42. Parathyroid hormone antagonist to
  43. What does the thymus secrete?
    • Hormones involved in maturation of the immune system
    • *t-lymphocytes
  44. Thymus AND chidlren
    Very large in children after puberty it starts to become a fatty mass
  45. Where are adrenal glands located?
    Paired glands that sit on top of the kidneys
  46. 2 layers of adrenal gland
    • cortex
    • *outer layer

    • -meduall
    • *inner
  47. 3 zonas in cortex of adrenal medulla
    -zona glomerulosa

    -zona fasciculata

    -zona reticularis
  48. Zone in medulaa
    Adrenal medulla
  49. adrenal cortex) what does each layer produce?
    Different type of corticosteroid
  50. Zona glomerulosa
    mineralocorticoids; aldosterone (water balance)
  51. Zona fasciculata
    glucocorticoids; cortisol (stress and metabolism)
  52. Zona reticularis
    gonadocorticoids ; androgens (puberty)
  53. Medulla of adrenal gland is part of
    Sympathetic ANS branch
  54. Medulla from adrenal gland secretes
    80 epinephrine to 20 Norepinephrine
  55. Where is the pancreas located?
    Partially behind the stomach, elongated shape
  56. Pancreas has
    Both endocrine and exocrine functions
  57. Pancreas ) cells of pancreas
    Pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
  58. Endocrine of pancreas )What do pancreatic islets secrete ?
    • Insulting and glucagon
    • *glucose metabolism
  59. What are pancreas cells related to endocrine?
    Pancreatic islets
  60. Pancreas, endocrine portion: alpha cells secret
  61. Pancreas, endocrine portion: beta cells secxret
  62. Pancreas, endocrine portion: delta cells secrete
  63. Pancreas, exocrine portion for digestion
    acinar cells and duct cells
  64. 2 functions of gonads
    • -gametes
    • *sperm or ova

    • -hormones
    • *test or EST/progest
  65. master controller of endocrine systems?
  66. What is hypothalamus composed of?
    Several clusters of neurons or nuclei
  67. How does hypothalamus controls the ant lobe pit gland regarding released of hormones?
    Portal system allows hypothalamus to send stop&go factors signals to ant lobe for control of master gland activity
  68. Small intestine and stomach ) what do they contained?
    contain gut-associated endocrine cells (enteroendocrine cells) to regulate digestion

    ***may be paracrine in nature or relaxed into vascular system
  69. What do enteroendocrine cells release?
    Several peptide hormones to regulate digestive functions
  70. Kidneys: unidentified cells produce
  71. Kidneys: what does Erythropoietin do?
    Increases RBC production
  72. Heart: what do specialized cardiac muscle cells produce?
    atria natriuretic peptide (ANP)
  73. Heart: what does ANP do?
    Functions in controlling blood pressure
  74. Placenta: what fdoees it produce?
    • -estrogen/progesterone and human chronic gonadotropin (hcG)
    • *temp endocrine organ
  75. What is recognized by pregnancy tests