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What is a nutrient and what are the six things that fall under this term?
Needed for energy or for synthesis and/or function of biomolecules
carbohydrates, proteins, water, lipids, vitamins, minerals
What is an essential nutrient?
Cannot be synthesized in body, must be consumed in diet
What is a non-essential nutrient?
Can be synthesized in body.
What is a conditionally essential nutrient?
Nutrients can be synthesized in body but may be inadequate.
What are macronutrients?
Bulk of the diet (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, water)
What are micronutrients?
needed in less than a few milligrams a day (minerals and vitamins)
What are phytochemicals and zoonutrients?
derived from plants and animals, respectively, that may confer some health benefits but not considered nutrients
ex. Resveratrol found in red wine is thought to reduce chances of cancer
What is 1 calorie?
1 calorie is the heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius.
What is the relationship between calorie, kcal, and Calorie?
1000 calories = 1 kcal = 1 Calorie
What is under-nutrition?
16% of the world is undernourished, may include insufficient calorie intake or deficiency in nutrients
ex. Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness
What is over-nutrition?
Associated with low-level physical activity and consumption of cheap, high-energy foods
Type 2 diabetes (11% of US population)
What does the NAS do?
Set nutrition requirements
What does the USDA do?
What does the FDA do?
Regulate food labeling
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
bracketed for age, sex, pregnancy
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
Used to examine likelihood that intake is adequate in a population
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
Used as a goal to help ensure adequate intake in an individual
vitamins, minerals, proteins: % of how much you need
Adequate Intake (AI) Level
Used to examine likelihood that intake is adequate when no RDA is set for a nutrient
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
Used to determine likelihood of excess or toxicity
fats, cholesterol, sodium, carbs: % you don't want to go above
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
kcal that should be consumed per day
Acceptable Measurement Distribution Range (AMDR)
Percent of total kcal (EER) that should be (for adults)
- 45-65% - Carbs
- 10-35% - Protein
- 20-35% - Fats
Five important things on nutrition facts panel
- 1. Cal/serving
- 2. serving size
- 3. percent daily value for 2000 Cal
- 4. ingredients (descending order of abundance)
- 5. footnotes
What are the FDA Proposed Changes to Nutrition Facts Label in 2014?
- - update serving sizes
- - include "added sugars"
- - greater emphasis on energy balance; less emphasis on Calories from total fat
What are Nutrient Content Claims?
- - Describe amount of nutrient or Calories per serving
- - Pre-established by FDA based on fixed standards
- - Foods and dietary supplements
ex. Fat free, low fat, etc.
What are the two types of Health Claims and what are they?
Health claims are claims about how product may affect risk for disease or health related conditions
regular or qualified
Regular health claims
- - Supported by considerable scientific evidence—standard is “significant scientific agreement”
- - Are pre-approved by FDA or authorized by governmental scientific body (NAS)
- - Pre-approved claims may be used with dietary supplements
Qualified health claims
- Much lower standard of evidence—some credible evidence but does not meet the “significant scientific agreement” standard
- Requires petition to FDA
- Must be accompanied by qualifying statement
- Allowed for both regular foods and dietary supplements
Structure and function claims
- - Statement of the role that nutrient is known to play in normal metabolism and physiology
- - Cannot link nutrient to overall health or decreased susceptibility to disease
- - Not pre-approved by FDA but must be truthful
- - FDA requires disclaimer when these claims are made on dietary supplement labels, stating that “the FDA has not evaluated the claim and the product is not intended to …. prevent any disease, etc.”