Ch 4 ID Terms

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  1. genes
    the information-containing elements that determine the characteristics of a species as a whole and of the individuals within it; a segment of DNA that contains the instructions for making a particular protein
  2. chromosomes
    Threadlike structures in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell that have a single, enormously long linear DNA molecule associated with proteins that fold and pack the fine DNA thread into a more compact structure
  3. gene expression
    The process through which the information encoded in DNA is interpreted by the cell to guide the synthesis of protein
  4. genetic code
    The exact correspondence between the four-letter nucleotide alphabet of DNA and the twenty-letter amino acid alphabet of proteins
  5. genome
    The complete set of information in an organisms DNA, and it carries the information for all of the proteins and RNA molecules that the organism will ever synthesize; carries the instructions for roughly 24,000 distinct proteins
  6. DNA hybridization
    Technique in which a labeled nucleic acid strand serves as a probe that localizes a complementary strand; paints each chromosome a different color
  7. conserved synteny
    Large blocks of our genomes contain genes in the same order and can thus be recognized in other species
  8. histones
    • Responsible for the first and most basic level of chromosome packing, the nucleosome, a protein-DNA complex; made during S phase and assembled into nucleosomes on the daughter DNA helices just behind the replication fork
  9. nucleosome
    A complex of DNA wrapped around histones and its adjacent linking DNA ; contains eight histone proteins—two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4—and double-stranded DNA
  10. Histone H1
    Larger than individual core histone and less well conserved during evolution. A single H1 molecule binds to each nucleosome, contacting both DNA and protein, and changing the path of the DNA as it exits from the nucleosome
  11. histone code hypothesis
    Combos of chemical modifications o fhistones that determine how and when DNA packaged in nucleosomes can be accessed
  12. code reader complex
    A large protein complex that contains a series of protein modules, each of which recognizes a specific histone mark; binds tightly only to a region of chromatin that contains several of the different histone marks that it recognizes; therefore, only a specific combo of marks will cause the complex to bind to chromatin and attract additional protein complexes that catalyze a biological function
  13. mitotic chromosome
    A very highly condensed chromosome that contains one of two identical daughter DNA molecules generated earlier in the cell cycle by DNA replication; the order of visible features along a mitotic chromosome at least roughly reflects the order of genes along the DNA molecule
  14. condensins
    Large protein complexes built from SMC protein dimers that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to help coil the two DNA molecules in an interphase chromosome to produce the two chromatids of a mitotic chromosome
  15. pseudogene
    A duplicated gene that has become irreversibly inactivated by multiple mutations; no longer functional
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Ch 4 ID Terms
2015-02-05 16:50:24
Test One
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