Fallacies

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Author:
hcunning
ID:
294451
Filename:
Fallacies
Updated:
2015-01-31 17:39:51
Tags:
fallacies
Folders:
renr260
Description:
Fallacies for Ren R 260
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  1. Fallacy
    • a deceptive, misleading, or false notion, belief, etc
    • a misleading or unsound statement
  2. Begging the Question
    • a circular argument in which the conclusion is included in the premise
    • ex. establishing national parks is not bad so it must be good
  3. Appeals to Common Sense
    • "common sense" is not necessarily correct
    • ex. when cultural norms are presented as universal norms, values and value judgements are assumed to be shared
  4. Assumption of Common Knowledge
    You know it so well that you think everyone should know it, it seems obvious (even in error)
  5. Appeal to Common Practice
    • Argues that since most people do something then that action is correct or justifiable, moral, reasonable, etc.¬†
    • ex. Most industries pay women less than men so its ok for academia to pay women less than men
  6. Emotional Appeals
    • An argument that is used to elicit an emotional response instead of presenting a rational argument¬†
    • easier for most people NOT to think critically, but to rely on their "gut" reaction
    • ex. lots of emotional appeals to fear, loyalty, prejudice, spite, vanity, pity
  7. Appeals to Authority
    • because an authority states something, it must therefore be true
    • BUT should not be used to dismiss the claims of experts, or scientific consensus
  8. The Nobel disease
    • Where Nobel Prize-winning scientists endorse or perform "research" in pseudoscientific areas in their later years
    • ex. Kary Mullis, biochemist -> climate change denial, alien abduction, ozone denial, alien raccoons
  9. Excluded Middle Fallacy
    • Assumes there are only two alternatives when in fact there are more, aka black and white thinking
    • ex. We must sign Kyoto or we will all suffer horrible painful deaths
  10. Burden of Proof Fallacy
    • The claim that whatever has not yet been proved false must be true (or vice versa)
    • ex. prove without a shadow of any doubt that humans are causing global warming or there is no reason to act
  11. Arguments against the man
    • When irrelevant personal premises are introduced against an opponent, aka ab hominem argument
    • ex. no, YOUR MOM
  12. Name Calling
    • Links a person or idea to a negative symbol, person who uses this technique hopes the audience will reject the person or idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence¬†
    • ex. someone who's committed to their position in an argument may be labelled a "fanatic" or "radical"
  13. Glittering Generalities
    • Uses words that have general deep-set concepts
    • ex. "we believe in (insert glittering generality like good, proper, motherhood, science, health, right, moral)
  14. Euphemisms
    • Attempt to calm or misdirect in the audience by using bland or misleading phrasing
    • ex. "Sustainable forest management" replaces logging, Sunshine units
  15. Unwarranted Extrapolation
    The tendency to make huge predictions about the future on the basis of a few small facts
  16. Slippery slope arguments
    • That some event must inevitably follow from another without any rational argument or demonstrable mechanism for the inevitability of the event in question
    • ex. if you don't do your readings you will drop out of class, university, and end up working at a fast food restaurant for the rest of your life
  17. Straw man argument
    Misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack
  18. Red Herring
    • Argument given in response to another argument, which is irrelevant and draws attention away from the subject or argument
    • ex. /mentions environment "we can't worry about the environment, we're in the middle of a WAR"

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