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Verbal vs nonverbal
- Verbal - the send & receiving of messages with words
- Nonverbal - the sending and receiving of wordless messages that can be communicated by body language, postures, gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact.
Created in individual persons o through cultural associations.
- When we forget the word is not the thing -
- the act of regarding something that is intangible
- or abstract as tangible or concrete.
- ex: a woman is not a thing - she has unique personality, feelings, etc.
Using different words with the same meaning or the same words with different meanings.
The structure of language means
Governed by a set of rules that is culture bound
Triangle of meaning
p.64 Figure 4.2
- The word can have two or more different meanings
- Denotative - defined in the dictionary with a choice of meanings
- Connotative - subjective and individual and built on our experiences with that word
Meaning of abstract language
(t and icn)
words stand for things, objects, and people, etc.
The objective, agreed upon definition of a word
Influenced by individual personal history or cultural experience
Eight functions of language
p.65 Table 4.1
- Reduce uncertainty
- Express/control emotion
- Reveal or hide thoughts/emotions
- Connect with or avoid others
- Create our own style
- Share information
- Control or be controlled
- Monitor or analyze our communications - have the power of "metacommunicaiton" - we talk about our talk
In the 8 functions of language "Metacommunication" means
p.65 Table 4.1 (last one)
how we can "talk about our talk" in a stressful situation can help us "control" the situation
Authoritative nature of language
The rules of communication with particular others in certain communication contexts. It tells us who people are, their position in society, and how we should interact with them. Sometimes they are understood across the entire culture; at others times, they create barriers between individuals and groups. EX: southern talk vs western talk
Language is the most significant factor in determining what we see in the world and how we think about and evaluate what we see
How is Language Ambiguous?
- 1.Depending on how you phrase the sentence the word ambiguous has multi-meanings 2.Interpretation has changed over time
- 3.When words do not have a clear meaning
wording to "soften" reality or be "sensitive" to another person
Language deliberately constructed to disguise or distort its actual meaning
words/actions to deceive
tell us about a group to which someone belongs
- Oversimplified categories to classify individuals to reduce uncertainty
- Can be positive or negative
Superior or inferior beliefs regarding particular groups
The view that one's own culture or group is the center of the universe
Attacking the status of entire groups - ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, religion
Sex vs Gender
- Sex is biological
- Gender is a set of expectations for appropriate behavior
Prejudice regarding expectations of what is appropriate female and male behavior, and assertions on gender superiority.
Prejudice regarding issues of sexual orientation and the question of whether attraction to the same sex is a choice
Females & Males
- Men approach the world as individuals; hierarchical of power; negotiate; solve problems; offer solutions
- Women hierarchical of friendship;view the world as a network of connections; negotiate for closeness, confirmation, and support
The power of language to influence interpretations within cultures
The power of language to influence interpretations of the world in a specific culture.
Language and culture
- Language allows people to develop values and beliefs and allows us to share our customs
- Culture affects how we use language to identify our goals and how we achieve those goals.
Collectivist vs individualist cultures
- Collectivist emphasize the group success
- Individualists emphasize individual success
The use of fairly habitual or scripted ways of communicating regardless of the others in the communication experience
Willingness to create new categories of meaning and understanding in communicating in new situations.
- A language strategy used by a specific group to create a sense of community among group members.
- Ex: technology, sports teams, rock climbers,
The ability to adapt to the widest range of communication experiences with skill, considering the most appropriate response based on a comprehensive understanding of the entire communication experience.
Language that acknowledges and directly supports the contributions of another person
Language that evaluates or judges the contributions of others.