the energy of an electron ____, the farther out from the nucleus it is located
atomic emission spectrum
when electrons are emitted to different energy levels and when these electrons return to their ground states, each will emit a photon w/ wavelength characteristic of the specific energy transition it undergoes.
what does the energy of the emitted photon in emission spectra correspond to?
the difference between higher energy initial state and lower energy final state
how many levels of d orbitals are there
how many levels of f are there?
magnetic field will cause parallel spins in unpaired electrons and therefore cause attraction.
materials that have atoms of all paired electrons will repell magnetic field (creating levitating effect)
s and p, or s and d, or s and f.
what is the max electrons that can fill a subshell?
effective nuclear charge
net positive charge experienced by the outermost electrons
Zeff increase from left to right.
energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species
energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an electron
greater the Zeff, means greater the energy.
noble gases have zero electron affinity b/c they cannot accept electron
why can metals conduct electricity?
valence electrons are not held tightly and thus they can move about
period on a PT
what is likely to form complexes with H2O?
which elements can have incomplete octet
H (2), He(2), Li(2), Be(4), B(6)
which elements can form expanded octet
P (10), S(12), Cl(14)
nonmetals with rel. similar values of electronegativity
not crystal lattice like ionic compounds
polar covalent bond
0.5-1.7 is the difference in their electroneg, not sufficient to form ionic, but sep the charge resulting in partial neg and partial pos.
creates dipole=qd (charge x distance)
what are the three intermolecular forces?
london, dipole, and hydrogen
equation for formal charge
V-N (nonbonding)-1/2N (bonding)
V-electrons in the atom's valence shell normally
difference between molecular weight and atomic weight
atomic weight is the weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes while molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in a molecule.
equivalents in molarity divide by liter.
usually with heat, high frequency radiation or electrolysis