Card Set Information
gravitational force between two objects
what keeps an object in its circular pathway?
work done by nonconservative force
=change in Energy (change in potential energy plus change in kinetic energy)
when can we say work is done in a system?
when volume of the system is changed due to an applied pressure.
area under PV graph
when a gas expands is work positive or neg?
work is positive (work was done by the gas)
same as isovolumetric
work done per unit time
work energy theorem
work done is equal to change in KE
first law of thermodynamics
change in internal energy = heat transferred into the system - work done by the system
ratio of magnitudes of force exerted on an object by a simple machine to the force actually applied on the simple machine
work output/ work input
work input is the product of (effort)(effort distance)
output (load x load distance)
kelvin to celsius
Fahrenheit to Celsius
change in length= (coefficient of linear expansion) (original length) (change in temp)
not capable of exchanging energy or matter
total change in internal energy is zero
capable of transferring energy
movable pistons and gases are examples
independent of path taken to reach a particular equilibrium state
function of only the current equilibrium state of a system
Pressure, density, temp, volume, enthalpy, internal energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy.
how does one change the internal energy?
increasing the temperature in the system
when is work positive for a system?
work is positive when system expands
work is neg when system compresses
1 cal is how many joules
transfer of heat by physical motion of fluid over material.
only liquids and gases
transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves, can transfer energy through vaccum
amount of heat required to raise 1 g of substance by one degree Celsius or kelvin
for liquid that is 1cal/(g K) or 4.184J/(g.K)
q=mc (change in temp)
which has greater kinetic energy at the same temp: liquid or solid
even though liquid water has greater number of microstates (increase freedom of movment), KE is the same as solid water at same temp.
equation for heat during phase change
(m is the mass of substance)
solid to liquid
gas to solid
no heat change
units for entropy
entropy of the universe is always increasing
ability to flow and conform to shape of the container
g/mL or g/cm^3
density of water
when density of fluid is compared to that of pure water 1g/cm^3
what is pressure in terms of force and area?
what is the pressure of air?
1.013 x 10^5 Pa=760 mmHg=760 torr=1atm
force of buoyancy
density of fluid (V fluid displace) (g)
cohesion vs. adhesion
cohesion, attractive force that molecule of liquid feels toward other molecules of same liquid
: attraction between water and another substance, backwards meniscus
flow rate and radius and pressure gradient
flow rate is proportional to 4th power of radius, inversely proportional to pressure gradient