Kaplan Physics

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Author:
xijunzhu
ID:
294472
Filename:
Kaplan Physics
Updated:
2015-01-31 22:03:32
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physics
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physics
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  1. gravitational force between two objects
    Gm1m2/r^2
  2. what keeps an object in its circular pathway?
    centripetal force
  3. torque
    rFsin(theta)
  4. work done by nonconservative force
    =change in Energy (change in potential energy plus change in kinetic energy)
  5. when can we say work is done in a system?
    when volume of the system is changed due to an applied pressure.
  6. work
    • Fdcos (theta)
    • area under PV graph
  7. when a gas expands is work positive or neg?
    work is positive (work was done by the gas)
  8. isochoric
    same as isovolumetric
  9. power
    • work done per unit time
    • watt
    • J/s
  10. work energy theorem
    work done is equal to change in KE
  11. first law of thermodynamics
    change in internal energy = heat transferred into the system - work done by the system
  12. mechanical advantage
    ratio of magnitudes of force exerted on an object by a simple machine to the force actually applied on the simple machine
  13. efficiency
    • work output/ work input
    • work input is the product of (effort)(effort distance)
    • output (load x load distance)
  14. kelvin to celsius
    K=C+273
  15. Fahrenheit to Celsius
    F=(9/5)C+32
  16. thermal expansion
    change in length= (coefficient of linear expansion) (original length) (change in temp)
  17. isolated system
    • not capable of exchanging energy or matter
    • total change in internal energy is zero
    • insulator (calorimeter)
  18. closed system
    • capable of transferring energy
    • movable pistons and gases are examples
  19. state function
    • independent of path taken to reach a particular equilibrium state
    • function of only the current equilibrium state of a system
    • Pressure, density, temp, volume, enthalpy, internal energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy.
  20. how does one change the internal energy?
    • increasing the temperature in the system
    • (increase-pos, decrease-neg)
  21. when is work positive for a system?
    • work is positive when system expands
    • work is neg when system compresses
  22. 1 cal is how many joules
    4.184
  23. convection
    • transfer of heat by physical motion of fluid over material.
    • only liquids and gases
  24. radiation
    transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves, can transfer energy through vaccum
  25. specific heat
    • amount of heat required to raise 1 g of substance by one degree Celsius or kelvin
    • for liquid that is 1cal/(g K) or 4.184J/(g.K)
  26. heat equation
    • q=mc (change in temp)
    • c=specific heat)
  27. which has greater kinetic energy at the same temp: liquid or solid
    even though liquid water has greater number of microstates (increase freedom of movment), KE is the same as solid water at same temp.
  28. equation for heat during phase change
    • q=mL
    • (m is the mass of substance)
    • L=constant
  29. fusion
    solid to liquid
  30. gas to solid
    deposition
  31. adiabatic
    no heat change
  32. units for entropy
    • J/ (mol.K)
    • entropy of the universe is always increasing
  33. fluid characteristics
    ability to flow and conform to shape of the container
  34. density
    g/mL or g/cm^3
  35. density of water
    • 1g/cm^3
    • 1000kg/m^3
  36. specific gravity
    when density of fluid is compared to that of pure water 1g/cm^3
  37. what is pressure in terms of force and area?
    • F/A
    • pascal (N/m^2)
  38. what is the pressure of air?
    1.013 x 10^5 Pa=760 mmHg=760 torr=1atm
  39. hydrostatic pressure
    p0+pgz
  40. force of buoyancy
    density of fluid (V fluid displace) (g)
  41. cohesion vs. adhesion
    • cohesion, attractive force that molecule of liquid feels toward other molecules of same liquid
    • adhesion: attraction between water and another substance, backwards meniscus
  42. flow rate and radius and pressure gradient
    • poiseuille's law
    • flow rate is proportional to 4th power of radius, inversely proportional to pressure gradient
  43. continuity equation
    vA=vA
  44. bernoulli's equation
    P+1/2pv^2+pgh=P+1/2pv^2+pgh

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