# Kaplan Physics

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1. gravitational force between two objects
Gm1m2/r^2
2. what keeps an object in its circular pathway?
centripetal force
3. torque
rFsin(theta)
4. work done by nonconservative force
=change in Energy (change in potential energy plus change in kinetic energy)
5. when can we say work is done in a system?
when volume of the system is changed due to an applied pressure.
6. work
• Fdcos (theta)
• area under PV graph
7. when a gas expands is work positive or neg?
work is positive (work was done by the gas)
8. isochoric
same as isovolumetric
9. power
• work done per unit time
• watt
• J/s
10. work energy theorem
work done is equal to change in KE
11. first law of thermodynamics
change in internal energy = heat transferred into the system - work done by the system
ratio of magnitudes of force exerted on an object by a simple machine to the force actually applied on the simple machine
13. efficiency
• work output/ work input
• work input is the product of (effort)(effort distance)
14. kelvin to celsius
K=C+273
15. Fahrenheit to Celsius
F=(9/5)C+32
16. thermal expansion
change in length= (coefficient of linear expansion) (original length) (change in temp)
17. isolated system
• not capable of exchanging energy or matter
• total change in internal energy is zero
• insulator (calorimeter)
18. closed system
• capable of transferring energy
• movable pistons and gases are examples
19. state function
• independent of path taken to reach a particular equilibrium state
• function of only the current equilibrium state of a system
• Pressure, density, temp, volume, enthalpy, internal energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy.
20. how does one change the internal energy?
• increasing the temperature in the system
• (increase-pos, decrease-neg)
21. when is work positive for a system?
• work is positive when system expands
• work is neg when system compresses
22. 1 cal is how many joules
4.184
23. convection
• transfer of heat by physical motion of fluid over material.
• only liquids and gases
transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves, can transfer energy through vaccum
25. specific heat
• amount of heat required to raise 1 g of substance by one degree Celsius or kelvin
• for liquid that is 1cal/(g K) or 4.184J/(g.K)
26. heat equation
• q=mc (change in temp)
• c=specific heat)
27. which has greater kinetic energy at the same temp: liquid or solid
even though liquid water has greater number of microstates (increase freedom of movment), KE is the same as solid water at same temp.
28. equation for heat during phase change
• q=mL
• (m is the mass of substance)
• L=constant
29. fusion
solid to liquid
30. gas to solid
deposition
no heat change
32. units for entropy
• J/ (mol.K)
• entropy of the universe is always increasing
33. fluid characteristics
ability to flow and conform to shape of the container
34. density
g/mL or g/cm^3
35. density of water
• 1g/cm^3
• 1000kg/m^3
36. specific gravity
when density of fluid is compared to that of pure water 1g/cm^3
37. what is pressure in terms of force and area?
• F/A
• pascal (N/m^2)
38. what is the pressure of air?
1.013 x 10^5 Pa=760 mmHg=760 torr=1atm
39. hydrostatic pressure
p0+pgz
40. force of buoyancy
density of fluid (V fluid displace) (g)
41. cohesion vs. adhesion
• cohesion, attractive force that molecule of liquid feels toward other molecules of same liquid
• adhesion: attraction between water and another substance, backwards meniscus
42. flow rate and radius and pressure gradient
• poiseuille's law
• flow rate is proportional to 4th power of radius, inversely proportional to pressure gradient
43. continuity equation
vA=vA
44. bernoulli's equation
P+1/2pv^2+pgh=P+1/2pv^2+pgh

## Card Set Information

 Author: xijunzhu ID: 294472 Filename: Kaplan Physics Updated: 2015-02-01 03:03:32 Tags: physics Folders: Description: physics Show Answers:

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