Rad Review Easy Radiology Protection

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Rad Review Easy Radiology Protection
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2015-02-01 02:52:15
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Radiology Protection
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Radiology Protection
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  1. The structure labeled 5 in Figure 2–32 is the




    Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.






     
    body of C1 



     
    body of C2 



     
    odontoid process 



     
    anterior arch of C1
    D
  2. Which of the following is (are) directly related to photon energy?

    1. Kilovoltage

    2. Milliamperes

    3. Wavelength






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  3. A dorsal decubitus position of the chest may be used to evaluate small amounts of















    1. fluid in the posterior chest.
    2. air in the posterior chest.
    3. fluid in the anterior chest.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  4. When modifying the PA axial projection of the skull to demonstrate superior orbital fissures, the central ray is directed




     
    20° to 25° caudad. 



     
    20° to 25° cephalad. 



     
    30° to 35° caudad. 



     
    30° to 35° cephalad.
    A
  5. Which of the following has(have) been identified as source(s) of radon exposure?

    1. Indoors, in houses

    2. Smoking cigarettes

    3. Radiology departments






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  6. The major difference between excretory and retrograde urography is that




     
    they each require a different type of contrast agent. 



     
    intravenous studies require more images. 



     
    retrograde studies do not demonstrate function. 



     
    more contrast medium–induced adverse reactions occur in retrograde studies.
    C
  7. Which of the following interactions between x-ray photons and matter involves a high-energy photon and the ejection of an outer shell electron?




     
    Photoelectric effect 



     
    Coherent scatter 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    Pair production
    C
  8. Which of the following statements regarding film badges is (are) correct?















    1. Film badges should be read quarterly.
    2. Film badges must not leave the workplace.
    3. Film badges measure quantity and quality of radiation exposure.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  9. A patient who has been recumbent for some time and gets up quickly may suffer from light-headedness or feel faint. This is referred to as




     
    dyspnea 



     
    orthopnea 



     
    hypertension 



     
    orthostatic hypotension
    D
  10. In the radiographic rating charts shown in Figure 5–8, what is the maximum safe kilovoltage that may be used with the 1.0-mm focal-spot, single-phase x-ray tube using 400 mA and a 0.02-s exposure?










    Reproduced, with permission, from Dunlee Tech Data Publication 50014.






     
    70 kVp 



     
    75 kVp 



     
    80 kVp 



     
    85 kVp
    <correct.opt style="color: rgb(78, 78, 78); font-family: 'Open Sans'; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.5px;">C 

    A radiographic rating chart enables the radiographer to determine the maximum safe milliamperage, exposure time, and kilovoltage for a given exposure using a particular x-ray tube. Because the heat load that an anode will safely accept varies with the size of the focal spot, type of rectification, and anode rotation, these variables must also be identified. Each x-ray tube has its own characteristics and its own rating chart. First, find the chart with the identifying single-phase sine wave in the upper right corner and the correct focal-spot size in the upper left corner (chart C). Once the correct chart has been identified, locate 0.02 s on the horizontal axis, and follow its line up to where it intersects with the 400-mA curve. Then draw a line to where this point meets the vertical (kVp) axis; it intersects at exactly 80 kVp. This is the maximum permissible kilovoltage exposure at the given milliampere-seconds for this x-ray tube. The radiographer should always use somewhat less than the maximum exposure. (Selman,9th ed.p. 145)
  11. A change from 400-speed screens to 200-speed screens would require what change in milliampere-seconds?




     
    mAs should be increased by 15%. 



     
    mAs should be increased by 30%. 



     
    mAs should be doubled. 



     
    mAs should be halved.
    C

     As screen speed is decreased, exposure factors must be increased to maintain the original image density. A change from 400 to 200 speed usually requires that the milliampere-seconds value be doubled. If screen speed were changed from 200 to 400 speed, half the milliampere-seconds would be required. (Shephardpp. 67–68)
  12. When caring for the elderly, it is important to remember that, as one ages, there is often a decrease in:















    1. reaction time
    2. strength
    3. long-term memory






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  13. The effect of ionizing radiation on tissue depends on which of the following?

    1. Type of tissue interaction(s)

    2. Amount of interactions

    3. Biologic differences






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  14. Types of shape distortion include

    1. magnification

    2. elongation

    3. foreshortening






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  15. The tarsals and metatarsals are arranged to form the















    1. transverse arch.
    2. longitudinal arch.
    3. oblique arch.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  16. An autoclave is used for




     
    dry heat sterilization. 



     
    chemical sterilization. 



     
    gas sterilization. 



     
    steam sterilization.
    D
  17. Both radiographic images seen in the figure below were made of the same subject using identical exposure factors. Which of the following statements correctly describes these images?


    Reproduced with permission from Saia DA. Radiography: Program Review and Examination Preparation, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.















    1. Image A demonstrates less optical density because a shorter SID was used.
    2. Image A demonstrates more optical density because the subject was turned PA.
    3. Image B demonstrates more optical density because a shorter SID was used.






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    3 only 



     
    1 and 2 only
    C
  18. Ingestion of barium sulfate is contraindicated in which of the following situations?

    1. Suspected perforation of a hollow viscus

    2. Suspected large bowel obstruction

    3. Preoperative patients






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  19. An exposure was made at a 36-in. SID using 12 mAs and 75 kVp with a 400-speed imaging system and an 8:1 grid. A second radiograph is requested with improved recorded detail. Which of the following groups of technical factors will best accomplish this task?




     
    15 mAs, 12:1 grid, 75 kVp, 400-speed system, 36-in. SID 



     
    15 mAs, 12:1 grid, 75 kVp, 400-speed system, 40-in. SID 



     
    30 mAs, 12:1 grid, 75 kVp, 200-speed system, 40-in. SID 



     
    12 mAs, 8:1 grid, 86 kVp, 200-speed system, 36-in. SID
    C
  20. Diseases that require droplet precautions include

    1. rubella.

    2. mumps.

    3. influenza.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  21. The recommendation of "elective booking" states that elective abdominal radiographic examinations on women of reproductive age should be limited to the




     
    10 days following the menses. 



     
    10 days following the onset of menses. 



     
    10 days before the onset of menses. 



     
    last 10 days of the menstrual cycle.
    B
  22. Which of the following are considered most radiosensitive?




     
    Lymphocytes 



     
    Ova 



     
    Neurons 



     
    Myocytes
    A
  23. An emetic is used to




     
    induce vomiting 



     
    stimulate defecation 



     
    promote elimination of urine 



     
    inhibit coughing
    A
  24. Shoulder arthrography is performed to

    1. evaluate humeral luxation

    2. demonstrate complete or partial rotator cuff tear

    3. evaluate the glenoid labrum






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  25. A patient who is diaphoretic is experiencing




     
    profuse sweating. 



     
    hot, dry skin. 



     
    dilated pupils. 



     
    warm, moist skin.
    A
  26. Which of the following radiation protection measures is (are) appropriate for mobile radiography?

    1. The radiographer must be at least 6 ft from the patient and the x-ray tube during the exposure.

    2. The radiographer must announce in a loud voice that an exposure is about to be made and wait for personnel, visitors, and patients to temporarily leave the area.

    3. The radiographer must try to use the shortest SID.






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  27. Routine excretory urography usually includes a postmicturition radiograph of the bladder. This is done to demonstrate

    1. tumor masses.

    2. residual urine.

    3. prostatic enlargement.






     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  28. Joseph Luckett Jr, is a competent second-year student. He has been imaging patients under indirect supervision for most of the day. All CR images are viewed at the workstation on the computer monitor, before being sent to the radiologist.
    After taking posteroanterior (PA) and lateral chest projections on a patient with a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) test, Joseph notices that he has “clipped” the apices on the PA projection. As per the policy of the department and program, he must consult with a technologist before repeating any images.
    The technologist takes a quick glance at his image and says, “It looks fine. Send it.”
    “But what about the apices?” Joseph asks. He knows that imaging the apices is extremely important in suspected cases of TB.
    The technologist does not take a second look. “That's okay. It's just a routine. Send it.”
    What is the most appropriate immediate action for Joseph to take?





     
    Ignore the technologist's advice and repeat the PA view. 



     
    Send the images as suggested by the technologist. 



     
    Send the images but, without informing the technologist, add the following comment: “Technologist advised against a repeat.” 



     
    Explain the clinical history to the technologist and stress that he is uncomfortable sending a suboptimal study.
  29. To better demonstrate the interphalangeal joints of the toes, which of the following procedures may be employed?

    1. Angle the CR 15 degrees caudad.

    2. Angle the CR 15 degrees cephalad.

    3. Place a sponge wedge under the foot with the toes elevated 15 degrees.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    D
  30. Stochastic effects of radiation are those that

    1. have a threshold

    2. may be described as “all-or-nothing” effects

    3. are late effects






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  31. The axiolateral, or horizontal beam, projection of the hip requires the IR to be placed

    1. parallel to the central ray (CR)

    2. parallel to the long axis of the femoral neck

    3. in contact with the lateral surface of the body






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  32. Which of the following is (are) included in whole-body dose equivalents?

    1. Gonads

    2. Lens

    3. Extremities






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  33. Which of the following has (have) an effect on the amount and type of radiation-induced tissue damage?

    1. Quality of radiation

    2. Type of tissue being irradiated

    3. Fractionation






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  34. 12.34:
    Structures involved in blowout fractures include the

    1. orbital floor

    2. inferior rectus muscle

    3. zygoma






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  35. Which of the following is (are) used to account for the differences in tissue characteristics when determining effective dose to biologic material?

    1. Tissue weighting factors (W )

    2. Radiation weighting factors (W )

    3. Absorbed dose






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  36. In Figure 5–8, what is the maximum safe milliamperage that may be used with a 0.10-s exposure and 120 kVp, using the 3-phase, 1.0-mm focal-spot x-ray tube?







    Reproduced, with permission, from Dunlee Tech Data Publication 50014.






     
    300 mA 



     
    400 mA 



     
    500 mA 



     
    600 mA
    • A
    • A radiographic rating chart enables the radiographer to determine the maximum safe milliamperage, exposure time, and kilovoltage for a given exposure using a particular x-ray tube. Because the heat load that an anode will safely accept varies with the size of the focal spot, type of rectification, and anode rotation, these variables must also be identified. Each x-ray tube has its own characteristics and its own rating chart. Find the correct chart for the three-phase, 1.0-mm focal-spot x-ray tube. Locate 0.1 s on the horizontal (seconds) axis and follow it up to where it intersects with the 120-kVp line on the vertical (kVp) axis. They intersect just below the 300-mA curve, at approximately 310 mA. Thus, 300 mA is the maximum safe milliamperage for this particular group of exposure factors and x-ray tube.(Selman9th ed.p. 145)
  37. The functions of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) include

    1. storage of analog images

    2. acquisition of digital images

    3. storage of digital images






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  38. Which of the following imaging procedures do not require the use of ionizing radiation to produce an image?















    1. Ultrasound
    2. Computed axial tomography
    3. MRI






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  39. Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of a 16:1 grid?















    1. It absorbs a high percentage of scattered radiation.
    2. It has little positioning latitude.
    3. It is used with high-kVp exposures.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  40. A 15% decrease in kilovoltage accompanied by a 50% increase in milliampere-seconds will result in a(n)




     
    shorter scale of contrast 



     
    increase in exposure latitude 



     
    increase in radiographic density 



     
    decrease in recorded detail
    A
  41. According to the CDC, all the following precaution guidelines are true except




     
    airborne precautions require that the patient wear a mask. 



     
    masks are indicated when caring for patients on MRSA precautions. 



     
    patients under MRSA precautions require a negative-pressure room. 



     
    gloves are indicated when caring for a patient on droplet precautions.
    C
  42. Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the position illustrated in Figure 2–19?

    1. The right (adjacent to the table) ureter is parallel to the IR.

    2. The left (elevated) kidney is parallel to the IR.

    3. The degree of obliquity should be about 30 degrees.










     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  43. Sources of natural background radiation contributing to whole-body radiation dose include

    1. dental x-rays

    2. terrestrial radionuclides

    3. internal radionuclides






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  44. A cathartic is used to




     
    inhibit coughing. 



     
    promote elimination of urine. 



     
    stimulate defecation. 



     
    induce vomiting.
    C
  45. Of what material is the x-ray tube component numbered 2 in Figure 7–18 made?








     
    Cesium 



     
    Copper 



     
    Nickel 



     
    Tungsten
    C
  46. When medications are administered parenterally, they are given




     
    orally 



     
    orally or intravenously 



     
    intravenously or intramuscularly 



     
    by a route other than orally
    D
  47. The source-to-table distance in fixed/stationary fluoroscopy must




     
    be at least 15 in. 



     
    not exceed 15 in. 



     
    be at least 12 in. 



     
    not exceed 12 in.
    A
  48. The normal average rate of respiration for a healthy adult patient is




     
    5 to 7 breaths/min. 



     
    8 to 12 breaths/min. 



     
    12 to 20 breaths/min. 



     
    20 to 30 breaths/min.
    C
  49. If the exposure rate at 3 ft from the fluoroscopic table is 40 mR/h, what will be the exposure rate for 30 minutes at a distance of 5 ft from the table?




     
    7 mR 



     
    12 mR 



     
    14 mR 



     
    24 mR
    A
  50. Which of the following medications commonly found on emergency carts functions to raise blood pressure?




     
    Heparin 



     
    Norepinephrine 



     
    Nitroglycerin 



     
    Lidocaine
    B
  51. The symbols  and  are examples of which of the following?




     
    Isotopes 



     
    Isobars 



     
    Isotones 



     
    Isomers
    A
  52. Filters are an important component of film badges. Their function is to




     
    decrease exposure to the user. 



     
    identify the quality of radiation exposure. 



     
    reduce film fog. 



     
    increase film sensitivity.
    B
  53. Which of the following methods can be used effectively to decrease differential absorption, providing a longer scale of contrast in the diagnostic range?

    1. Using high peak kilovoltage and low milliampere-seconds factors

    2. Using compensating filtration

    3. Using factors that increase the photoelectric effect






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  54. The AP axial projection of the chest for pulmonary apices

    1. requires 15 to 20 degrees of cephalad angulation

    2. projects the apices above the clavicles

    3. should demonstrate the medial ends of the clavicles equidistant from the vertebral column






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  55. Verbal disclosure of confidential information that is detrimental to the patient is referred to as




     
    invasion of privacy 



     
    slander 



     
    libel 



     
    assault
    B
  56. Which of the following statements regarding knee x-ray arthrography is (are) true?

    1. Ligament tears can be demonstrated.

    2. Sterile technique is observed.

    3. MRI can follow x-ray.






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  57. Which of the following contributes most to patient dose?




     
    The photoelectric effect 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    Classic scatter 



     
    Thompson scatter
    A
  58. 12.58:
    Which of the following is (are) considered long-term somatic effect(s) of exposure to ionizing radiation?

    1. Life-span shortening

    2. Carcinogenesis

    3. Cataractogenesis






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  59. Europium-activated barium fluorohalide is associated with




     
    rare earth intensifying screens 



     
    image intensifiers 



     
    PSP storage plates 



     
    filament material
    C
  60. Pixel size and spacing determine the spatial resolution of the digital image. This is known as:




     
    Pixel pitch 



     
    Focal resolution 



     
    Nyquist resolution 



     
    Frequency modulation
    A

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