Rad Review Easy Radiology Protection 3

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Rad Review Easy Radiology Protection 3
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  1. The most frequent site of hospital-acquired infection is the




     
    urinary tract. 



     
    blood. 



     
    respiratory tract. 



     
    digestive tract.
    A
  2. A satisfactory radiograph was made without a grid using a 72-in. SID and 8 mAs. If the distance is changed to 40 in. and an 12:1 ratio grid is added, what should be the new milliampere-seconds value?




     
    9.5 mAs 



     
    12 mAs 



     
    21 mAs 



     
    26 mAs
    B
  3. Which of the following correctly identifies the radial styloid process in the illustration in Figure A?

    Figure A. Reproduced with permission from Saia DA. Radiography: Program Review and Examination Preparation, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.





     
    Number 1 



     
    Number 4 



     
    Number 10 



     
    Number 11
    D
  4. Which of the following ionizing radiations is described as having an RBE of 1.0?




     
    10 MeV protons 



     
    5 MeV alpha particles 



     
    Diagnostic x-rays 



     
    Fast neutrons
    C
  5. Which of the following combinations would pose the most hazard to a particular anode?




     
    0.6 mm focal spot, 75 kVp, 30 mAs 



     
    0.6 mm focal spot, 85 kVp, 15 mAs 



     
    1.2 mm focal spot, 75 kVp, 30 mAs 



     
    1.2 mm focal spot, 85 kVp, 15 mAs
    A
  6. Filtration is added to the x-ray beam to




     
    decrease photoelectric interaction. 



     
    remove the "hard" x-rays. 



     
    produce a more heterogeneous x-ray beam. 



     
    produce an x-ray beam with higher average energy.
    D
  7. The thoracic apophyseal joints are demonstrated with the




     
    coronal plane 90 degrees to the IR 



     
    midsagittal plane 90 degrees to the IR 



     
    coronal plane 20 degrees to the IR 



     
    midsagittal plane 20 degrees to the IR.
    D
  8. Symptoms of inadequate oxygen supply include

    1. dyspnea.

    2. cyanosis.

    3. retraction of intercostal spaces.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  9. A time of 1.5 minutes is required for a particular fluoroscopic examination, whose exposure rate is 275 mR/h. What is the approximate radiation exposure for the radiologic staff present in the fluoroscopy room during the examination?




     
    183 mR 



     
    68.7 mR 



     
    18.33 mR 



     
    6.87 mR
    D
  10. The dose of radiation that will cause a noticeable skin reaction is referred to as the




     
    LET 



     
    SSD 



     
    SED 



     
    SID
    C
  11. Which of the following statements is true with regard to the two CT images seen in Figure 6–3?

    1. Image A illustrates more superior structures.

    2. The images are sagittal reconstructions.

    3. The exam was performed without artificial contrast.









    Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  12. If 82 kVp, 300 mA, and 0.05 second were used for a particular exposure using 3-phase, 12-pulse equipment, what mAs would be required, using single-phase equipment, to produce a similar radiograph?




     
    7.5 



     
    20 



     
    30 



     
    50
    C
  13. Which of the following positions is required to demonstrate small amounts of air in the pleural cavity?




     
    AP supine 



     
    AP Trendelenburg 



     
    Lateral decubitus, affected side down 



     
    Lateral decubitus, affected side up
    D
  14. A star pattern is used to measure















    1. focal spot resolution.
    2. intensifying-screen resolution.
    3. SID resolution.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  15. The term windowing describes the practice of




     
    varying the automatic brightness control 



     
    changing the image contrast and/or density 



     
    varying the FOV 



     
    increasing resolution
    B
  16. The automatic exposure device that is located immediately under the x-ray table is the




     
    ionization chamber 



     
    scintillation camera 



     
    photomultiplier 



     
    photocathode
    A
  17. The classifications of acute radiation syndrome include all the followingexcept




     
    central nervous system 



     
    gastrointestinal 



     
    neonatal 



     
    hematologic
    C
  18. The unit of measurement used to express occupational exposure is the




     
    roentgen (C/kg) 



     
    rad (Gy) 



     
    rem (Sv) 



     
    relative biologic effectiveness (RBE)
    C
  19. All drug packages must provide certain information required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Some of the information that must be provided includes















    1. the generic name.
    2. contraindications.
    3. the usual dose.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  20. A patient with an upper respiratory tract infection is transported to the radiology department for a chest examination. Who should be masked?

    1. Technologist

    2. Transporter

    3. Patient






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  21. The target theory applies to




     
    spermatagonia 



     
    oocytes 



     
    lymphocytes 



     
    DNA molecules
    D
  22. Which of the following statements is correct with regard to assisting a patient from a wheelchair to an x-ray table?




     
    The wheelchair should be parallel with the x-ray table. 



     
    The patient's weaker side should be closer to the x-ray table. 



     
    The wheelchair should directly face the x-ray table. 



     
    The patient's stronger side should be closer to the x-ray table.
    D
  23. A radiologic technologist can be found guilty of a tort in which of the following situations?

    1. Failure to shield a patient of childbearing age from unnecessary radiation

    2. Performing an examination on a patient who has refused the examination

    3. Discussing a patient's condition with a third party






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  24. Exposure factors of 80 kVp and 8 mAs are used for a particular nongrid exposure. What should be the new milliampere-seconds value if an 8:1 grid is added?




     
    16 mAs 



     
    24 mAs 



     
    32 mAs 



     
    40 mAs
    C
  25. Which of the waveforms illustrated in the figure below represents single-phase, full-wave rectified equipment?

    Reproduced with permission from Saia DA. Radiography: Program Review and Examination Preparation, 2nd ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.





     
    Figure 1 



     
    Figure 2 



     
    Figure 3 



     
    Figure 4
    B
  26. Possible side effects of an iodinated contrast medium that is administered intravenously include all the following except

    1. a warm, flushed feeling.

    2. altered taste.

    3. rash and hives.






     
    1 only 



     
    3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  27. The reduction in the intensity of an x-ray beam as it passes through material is termed




     
    absorption 



     
    scattering 



     
    attenuation 



     
    divergence
    C
  28. Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding Figure 7–10?

    1. Excessive kilovoltage was used.

    2. High contrast is demonstrated.

    3. Insufficient penetration is evident.






    Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  29. Which of the following defines the gonadal dose that, if received by every member of the population, would be expected to produce the same total genetic effect on that population as the actual doses received by each of the individuals?




     
    Genetically significant dose 



     
    Somatically significant dose 



     
    Maximum permissible dose 



     
    Lethal dose
    A
  30. Examples of COPD include

    1. bronchitis.

    2. pulmonary emphysema.

    3. asthma.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  31. How will x-ray photon intensity be affected if the source-to-image distance (SID) is doubled?




     
    Its intensity increases two times. 



     
    Its intensity increases four times. 



     
    Its intensity decreases two times. 



     
    Its intensity decreases four times.
    D
  32. The purpose of filters in a film badge is




     
    to eliminate harmful rays. 



     
    to measure radiation quality. 



     
    to prevent exposure by alpha particles. 



     
    as a support for the film contained within.
    B
  33. Which of the following is (are) correct regarding care of protective leaded apparel?

    1. Lead aprons should be fluoroscoped yearly to check for cracks.

    2. Lead gloves should be fluoroscoped yearly to check for cracks.

    3. Lead aprons should be hung on appropriate racks when not in use.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  34. Histogram data that is skewed relative to the values of interest (VOI) of the histogram analysis used for a particular exam may be caused by all of the following, except:




     
    Anatomical structures not centered to the IP 



     
    Excessive windowing 



     
    The X-ray beam is not correctly aligned to the edges of the IP 



     
    The beam edge is irregular because of overlap of a radiopaque shadow, such as a gonadal shield
    B
  35. Irradiation of water molecules within the body and their resulting breakdown is termed




     
    epilation 



     
    radiolysis 



     
    proliferation 



     
    repopulation
    B
  36. All the following function to reduce patient dose except




     
    beam restriction 



     
    high kVp, low mAs factors 



     
    a high-ratio grid 



     
    a high-speed imaging system
    C
  37. Which of the following positions may be used to effectively demonstrate the right posterior axillary ribs?




     
    LAO 



     
    RAO 



     
    RPO 



     
    LPO
    C
  38. To demonstrate the mandibular body in the PA position, the




     
    CR is directed perpendicular to the IR. 



     
    CR is directed cephalad to the IR. 



     
    skull is obliqued away from the affected side. 



     
    skull is obliqued toward the affected side.
    A
  39. Which of the following is a radiologic procedure that functions to dilate a stenotic vessel?




     
    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy 



     
    Percutaneous angioplasty 



     
    Renal arteriography 



     
    Surgical nephrostomy
    B
  40. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus may be transmitted

    1. by sharing contaminated needles.

    2. from mother to child during birth.

    3. by intimate contact with body fluids.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  41. Which interaction between x-ray photons and matter results in total absorption of the incident photon?




     
    Photoelectric effect 



     
    Compton scattering 



     
    Coherent scattering 



     
    Pair production
    A
  42. The medical abbreviation meaning "three times a day" is




     
    tid. 



     
    qid. 



     
    qh. 



     
    pc.
    A
  43. Circuit devices that permit electrons to flow in only one direction are




     
    solid-state diodes 



     
    resistors 



     
    transformers 



     
    autotransformers
    A
  44. The portion of a hypodermic needle that attaches to the syringe is termed its




     
    hub 



     
    gauge 



     
    length 



     
    bevel
    A
  45. At least how many HVLs are required to reduce the intensity of a beam of monoenergetic photons to less than 10% of its original value?




     




     




     




     
    5
    C
  46. An x-ray image of the ankle was made at 40-SID, 200 mA, 50 ms, 70 kV, 0.6 mm focal spot, and minimal OID. Which of the following modifications would result in the greatest increase in magnification?




     
    1.2 mm focal spot 



     
    36-in. SID 



     
    44-in. SID 



     
    4-in. OID
    D
  47. If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body in a short period of time, its effect




     
    will be greater than if it were delivered over a long period of time. 



     
    will be less than if it were delivered over a long period of time. 



     
    has no relation to how it is delivered in time. 



     
    is solely dependent on the radiation quality.
    A
  48. A radiographer who discloses confidential patient information to unauthorized individuals can be found guilty of




     
    libel. 



     
    invasion of privacy. 



     
    slander. 



     
    defamation.
    B
  49. Medical and dental radiation accounts for what percentage of the general public's exposure to human-made radiation?




     
    10% 



     
    50% 



     
    80% 



     
    95%
    C
  50. Blood pressure may be expressed as 120/95. What does 95 represent?















    1. The phase of relaxation of the cardiac muscle tissue
    2. The phase of contraction of the cardiac muscle tissue
    3. A higher-than-average diastolic pressure






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    C
  51. You have encountered a person who is apparently unconscious. Although you open his airway, there is no rise and fall of the chest, and you can hear no breath sounds. You should




     
    begin mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing, giving two full breaths. 



     
    proceed with the Heimlich maneuver. 



     
    begin external chest compressions at a rate of 70-80 compressions/min. 



     
    begin external chest compressions at a rate of at least 100 compressions/min.
    D
  52. Under what circumstances might a radiographer be required to wear two dosimeters?

    1. During pregnancy

    2. While performing vascular procedures

    3. While performing mobile radiography






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  53. The collimator light and actual irradiated area must be accurate to within what percentage of the SID?




     
    2% 



     
    5% 



     
    10% 



     
    15%
    A
  54. In order for a phosphor to be suitable for use in intensifying screens, it should have which of the following characteristics?

    1. High conversion efficiency

    2. High x-ray absorption

    3. High atomic number






     
    1 only 



     
    3 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  55. The interaction between x-ray photons and matter shown in Figure 3–1 is associated with

    1. total energy transfer from photon to electron

    2. an outer-shell electron

    3. Compton scatter










     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    A
  56. Which of the following is (are) characteristic(s) of a 16:1 grid?

    1. It absorbs more useful radiation than an 8:1 grid.

    2. It has more centering latitude than an 8:1 grid.

    3. It is used with higher-kilovoltage exposures than an 8:1 grid.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  57. Characteristics of a patient with pulmonary emphysema include

    1. shoulder girdle elevation

    2. increased AP diameter of the chest

    3. hyperventilation






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  58. What structure can be located midway between the anterosuperior iliac spine (ASIS) and pubic symphysis?




     
    Dome of the acetabulum 



     
    Femoral neck 



     
    Greater trochanter 



     
    Iliac crest
    A
  59. Which of the following is (are) accurate positioning or evaluation criteria for an AP projection of the normal knee?

    1. Femorotibial interspaces equal bilaterally.

    2. Patella superimposed on distal tibia.

    3. CR enters ½ in. distal to base of patella.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  60. The infection streptococcal pharyngitis (“strep throat”) is caused by a




     
    virus. 



     
    fungus. 



     
    protozoon. 



     
    bacterium.
    D
  61. What is used to account for the differences in ionizing characteristics of various radiations, when determining their effect on biologic material?















    1. Radiation weighting factors ( W )
    2. Tissue weighting factors ( W )
    3. Absorbed dose






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  62. Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the PA axial projection of the cranium?















    1. The central ray is directed caudally to the OML.
    2. The petrous pyramids are projected into the lower third of the orbits.
    3. The frontal sinuses are visualized.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  63. In a posteroanterior (PA) projection of the chest being used for cardiac evaluation, the heart measures 14.7 cm between its widest points. If the magnification factor is known to be 1.2, what is the actual diameter of the heart?




     
    10.4 cm 



     
    12.25 cm 



     
    13.5 cm 



     
    17.64 cm
    B
  64. Which of the following medication routes refers to the term parenteral?

    1. Subcutaneous

    2. Intramuscular

    3. Oral






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  65. Lateral deviation of the nasal septum may be best demonstrated in the




     
    lateral projection 



     
    PA axial (Caldwell method) projection 



     
    parietoacanthal (Waters method) projection 



     
    AP axial (Towne method) projection
    C
  66. How are LET and biologic response related?




     
    They are inversely related. 



     
    They are directly related. 



     
    They are related in a reciprocal fashion. 



     
    They are unrelated.
    B
  67. What is the annual dose-equivalent limit for the skin and hands of an occupationally exposed individual?




     
    5 rem 



     
    25 rem 



     
    50 rem 



     
    100 rem
    C
  68. Focal-spot blur is greatest




     
    directly along the course of the central ray 



     
    toward the cathode end of the x-ray beam 



     
    toward the anode end of the x-ray beam 



     
    as the SID is increased
    B
  69. A quantity of medication introduced intravenously over a period of time is termed




     
    an IV push. 



     
    an infusion. 



     
    a bolus. 



     
    a hypodermic.
    B
  70. Hysterosalpingography may be performed for demonstration of

    1. uterine tubal patency

    2. mass lesions in the uterine cavity

    3. uterine position






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  71. The medical term for nosebleed is




     
    vertigo. 



     
    epistaxis. 



     
    urticaria. 



     
    aura.
    B
  72. If the exposure rate to a body standing 7 ft from a radiation source is 140 mR/h, what will be the dose to that body at a distance of 8 ft from the source in 30 minutes?




     
    182.8 mR 



     
    107 mR 



     
    91.4 mR 



     
    53.6 mR
    D
  73. Early symptoms of acute radiation syndrome include

    1. leukopenia

    2. nausea and vomiting

    3. cataracts






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    A
  74. Figure 7–5 illustrates which of the following?








     
    Screen resolution test 



     
    Nine-penny test 



     
    Collimator accuracy test 



     
    Focal-spot size test
    C
  75. Exposed silver halide crystals are changed to black metallic silver by the




     
    preservative 



     
    reducers 



     
    activators 



     
    hardener
    B
  76. A radiographer has recently joined your staff. You are aware that this individual has had her ARRT certification revoked. Realizing that your state requires certification, you speak to a supervisor about the matter. Your supervisor replies that he knows but made an exception "because we are so short staffed." You should




     
    report this to the next supervisor in charge. 



     
    report this to the facility administrator. 



     
    report this directly to the ARRT. 



     
    do and/or say nothing.
    C
  77. What is the approximate ESE for the average AP lumbar spine radiograph?




     
    30 rad 



     
    30 mrad 



     
    300 rad 



     
    350 mrad
    D
  78. A patient in a recumbent position with the head lower than the feet is said to be in which of the following positions?




     
    Trendelenburg 



     
    Fowler 



     
    Sims 



     
    Stenver
    A
  79. An exposure was made using 600 mA, 0.04-s exposure, and 85 kVp. Each of the following changes will serve to decrease the radiographic density by one-half except change to




     
    1/50-s exposure 



     
    72 kVp 



     
    18 mAs 



     
    300 mA
    C
  80. During atrial systole, blood flows into the

    1. right ventricle via the mitral valve

    2. left ventricle via the bicuspid valve

    3. right ventricle via the tricuspid valve






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  81. The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a long period of time, the effect




     
    will be greater than if it were delivered all at one time 



     
    will be less than if it were delivered all at one time 



     
    has no relation to how it is delivered in time 



     
    depends solely on the radiation quality
    B
  82. The following instructions should be given to a patient following a barium sulfate contrast examination:

    1. Increase fluid and fiber intake for several days.

    2. Changes in stool color will occur until all barium has been evacuated.

    3. Contact a physician if no bowel movement occurs in 24 hours.






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  83. Two film–screen images of the skull are shown in Figure 4–10. Which of the following best describes their different appearance?







    From the American College of Radiology Learning File. Courtesy of the ACR.






     
    Image B was made using a grid. 



     
    Image A demonstrates higher contrast. 



     
    Image A demonstrates motion. 



     
    Image B demonstrates shape distortion.
    B
  84. Which of the following positions will best demonstrate the right apophyseal articulations of the lumbar vertebrae?




     
    PA 



     
    Left lateral 



     
    RPO 



     
    LPO
    C

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