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ciliary motion is a ___ barrier that help remove microbes by...
- mechanical barrier.
- hair like extensions push materials to the exits.
phagocytosis and degranulation are ___ barriers
cell mediated like inflammation.
digestive enzymes are a ___ barrier that works by
chemical barrier that works by lysozymes (tears, saliva) destroying peptidoglycan.
coughing and sneezing are ___ barriers that work by?
mechanical barriers that work by expelling pathogens toward the exit.
1) acid production is a ____ barrier.
2)The 2 types of acids in the body that helps destroy pathogens are
- 1) chemical barrier
- -hydrochloric acid in the stomach helps destroy pathogens.
- -lactic acid is gentler, produced by microbes and found in the vagina.
2 branches of the immune system:
- 1) non-speficic:
- -generic response.
- -*innate: existing from birth (congenital)
- 2) Specific:
- -Tailored response to speficif antigens.
- -*adaptive: over time, immune system 'learns' and adapts to new pathogens
- -makes vaccination possible.
How do vaccinations work?
It mimics antigens (ag= antibody generator), so your body triggers the immune response to fight antigen
What cells do all immune cells arise from?
Hematopoetic stem cells.
T and B cells are both
lymphocytes and white blood cells (AKA leukocytes).
Neutrophils, microphages, dendritic cells, & lymphocytes are all
Leukocytes or WBC
2 antigen presenting cells:
APC (antigen presenting cells) include macrophages and dendritic cells. (neutrocells and B-cells are also).
3 innate immune response cells, & 2 adaptive immune cells
- Innate immune cells: dendritic, macrophages, and neutrophils.
- Adaptive immune cells: T cells & B cells
4 types of innate immunity barriers
- 1) physical: skin mucus membranes
- 2) Mechanical: coughing, sneezing
- 3) chemical barriers: body secretion, fever.
- 4) Cell-mediated: inflammation, phygocytosis, degranulation
mucous is a ___ barrier that works by
physical barrier that cover the underlining epithelial cells, packaging the pathogens for transport, & preventing pathogens from reaching cell.
skin is a ___ barrier that works by being: (3 things)
- -dry, salty, acidic
- -cell tightly joined w/layer that shed
- -indigenous microbiota (taking space/nutrients).
what provides the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract w/physical barriers, & how?
- mucous membranes=physical barrier.
- 1) they cover underlining epithelial cells, preventing pathogens from reaching cells.
- 2) Pachages pathogens in preparation for removal from the body.
what is ciliary motion is a ___ barrier that works by
mechanical barrier, w/hair like cells that push muchus out toward the exit
Paristalsis is a ___ bariar that works by
- -squeezing stuff through a tube. Helps move pathogens through body, limiting its time in the body.
cytokinesis/fever are ___ barriers that help by:
- chemical barriers
- 3) cytokines induce fever to help by destroying PDG (innate/adaptive immune response)
3 benefits & 1 detriment of fever
- 1) increase cellular activity (phagocytosis, degranulation)
- 2) increases blood flow
- 3) decreases iron levels (temporary anemia), depriving pathogen's of food.
- Decreases heat loss to environment.
- A) detriment: can damage own cells.
Inflammation is a ___ barrier of the innate immune response. Symptoms:
- Cell-mediated process.
- head, redness, swelling, pain
What biological process causes inflammation
- -movement of immune cells, fluids to site of infection.
- -degranulation & collateral damage to tissues.
biological result of inflammation
- -increased phagocytosis of pathogens
- -increased degranulation of pathogens
- -increased repair molecules at site of infection
phagocytosis and degranulations are similar innate immune response, because they are both
are both effective in destroying pathogens and produce ag.
- 1) phagocyte cell eats pathogen into phagosome.
- 2) uses degrading enzymes in lysosomes to destroy pathogen
- 3) then makes produce antigens (ag comes from pathogen).
2 famous WBC's that perform phagocytosis
macrophages and dendritic cells
famous WBC that participates ub degranulation
Neutrophils are granulocytes
in granulocytes that that contain degrading enzyme that are released from the granulocyte and destroy good and bad cells.
3 functions of MHC I Molecule to present Ag to adaptive immune response
- 1) found on all cells of the body (except non-nucleated cells like RBCs)
- 2) Identify own cells
- 3) present only Ag which arose inside the cell which MHC molecule is found (endogenous Ag).
enter into and replicate inside cells, like viruses.
MHC II molecules main function
- 1) found only on professional APC's (Ag presenting cells: dendritic & macrophages).
- 2) Present only on Ag which arose from outside of the cell which the MHC molecule is found (exogenous Ag).
Antigen produced outside the cell are a result of what 2 innate immune responses
phagocytosis & Degranulation
what types of cells are able to pick up and present Ag to MHC II?
APC (Antigen Ag presenting cells): *dendritic, *macrophages, neutrophils, B cells
which of the 2 immune system responses are the following from: Innate or adaptive?
general immune response to pathogens and
Result in distruction of pathogens by:
-phagocytosis and degranulation.
-If enough pathogens are destroyed, infection is cleared.
-Ag are produced during immune system response.
Innate or non-specific immune response