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Allows a cell to acquire a large substance from the extracellular fluid by binding the substance to specific membrane proteins and forming a vesicle
Allows droplets of extracellular fluid to be taken into the cell in small vesicles
The most abundant protein in the human body, forms strong fibers that provide structure for the cell and is an important part of the extracellular matrix
When substrate binds to an enzyme, the enzyme changes shape. This reaction is called:
An enzyme catalyzes a reaction by
Lowering the activation energy of a reaction
The main purpose of the Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs) in cellular respiration is to make
In addition to ATP, what is produced during glycolysis?
NADH and pyruvate
Which molecule is reduced in the following chemical reaction depicting cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2+ 6 H20 + Energy
Once pyruvate is made during cellular respiration, it is used in:
Making acetyl coA
The molecule illustrated below would be inserted into a membrane in order to:
increase membrane fluidity
What are examples of polysaccharides?
Polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins are similar in that they
are synthesized by dehydration reactions
The primary structure of proteins is composed of
a chain of amino acids
A nucleotide is made up of
A ribose sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base
When a potassium ion moves from the soil into the vacuole of a cell on the surface of a root, it must pass through several structures before getting to the vacuole. What correctly describes the order in which these structures will be encountered by the ion?
- 1. Primary Cell Wall
- 2. Secondary Cell Wall
- 3. Plasma Membrane
- 4. Cytoplasm
Long distance signalling in cells is done by
Using hormones which travel via the bloodstream to the target site
Autocrine signalling involves receptors that
are located both on the signaling and target cells
Channels between adjacent animal cells, which allow for direct communication are known as
The structure labeled C
best describes a
The hydrophobic portion of the membrane is:
Which letter indicates the ligand?
What is the best description for the part of the image labeled "C"?
An intracellular receptor
Which type of organelle is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What cellular structure is pictured here?
The part of the cell that packages macromolecules for transport in the cell
Which of the following are capable of converting light energy to chemical energy?
A houseplant looks healthy and turgid. If it is watered regularly, the extracellular conditions remain hypotonic with respect to the cell. This will cause the vacuole to
- Increase in size as water enters the cell
- Push against the cell membrane of the cell
Based on the image shown, what is correct?
- The cell is hypotonic with respect to the extracellular fluid
- The water will go out of the cell
What shows passive diffusion?
B and C
Which bests depicts facilitated diffusion?
One way ATP is made is through an enzymatic reaction that transfers a phosphate from an intermediate molecules to ADP. This method of making ATP is known as _____.
Another method of making ATP is by using a proton motive force to power ATP synthase to attach phosphate to ADP. This method of making ATP is known as _____.
Chemiosmosis (oxidative phosphorylation)
______ is considered a molecular machine that is made up of microtubules and filaments that provide mechanical strength, cell shape, organization and direction to intracellular and cellular movements.
______ is the type of reaction that breaks the bond that joins the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule. Energetically speaking, we categorize this reaction as _____.
Cellular respiration is comprised of a series of reactions; and metabolically it is considered a _____ reaction, because it takes something complex and breaks it down to something simple. Energetically, it is considered a _____ reaction, because it releases energy.
The ____ consists of all the internal contents--both liquid and solid--of a cell.
Living organisms must have an energy input to regenerate ATP from ADP + P. Animals get this energy from ___.
Glycolysis takes place in the _____ of a cell, whereas the Citric Acid Cycle takes place in the ____ of a cell.
- Mitochondrial matrix
What specific type of transport is shown by "A"?
What specific type of transport is shown by "B"?
Secondary Active Transport
In which large category
of proteins would you place the membrane protein in "A"?
Integral or Transmembrane
In which specific subcategory
of proteins would you place the membrane protein in "B"?
How is hydrogen used to bring sucrose into the cell?
Proton Motive Force
Name the the three types of cellular work and the molecule which allows cellular work to occur
- Molecule: ATP
List and briefly describe the three stages of cellular signalling
- Receptor activation: ligand binds to a receptor and activates it
- Signal Transduction: series of reactions caused by the activated receptor that lead to cellular response
- Cell Response: how the cell responds as a result of trandsuction
When ATP is at a high concentration in a cell, it binds to an enzyme in glycolysis that stops the reaction and the production of more ATP. (Enzyme reaction and ATP binding site)
- Reaction: Feedback inhibition
- ATP Site: allosteric
In the first step of glycolysis, glucose and ATP bind to hexokinase to produce glucose-6-biphosphate.(Enzymatic reaction and ATP site)
- Reaction: Regular Enzymatic Reaction
- ATP Site: active
Methanol poisoning occurs because methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and formic acid which attack the optic nerve causing blindness. Ethanol is given as an antidote for methanol poisoning because ethanol inhibits the oxidation of methanol. Ethanol is oxidized in preference to methanol and consequently, the oxidation of methanol is slowed down so that the toxic by-products do not have a chance to accumulate. If more methanol is introduced, it can reduce the effectiveness of ethanol as an antidote. As long as more methanol is not introduced, the toxic effects will be averted. (Enzymatic reaction and Ethanol Binding)
- Reaction: Competitive Inhibition
- Binding Site: Active
Ethanol is metabolized in the body by oxidation to acetaldehyde, which is in turn further oxidized to acetic acid by aldehyde oxidase enzymes. The second reaction is rapid so that acetaldehyde does not accumulate in the body.
- Enzymatic Reaction: Regular Enzymatic Reaction
- Binding Site: Active
Compounds containing heavy metals are poisonous because the ions in these metals affect the tertiary structure of key enzymes in the body and render them unable to bind to appropriate substrates.
- Enzymatic Reaction: Non-competitive
- Binding Site: allosteric
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