SG Ch. 11 & 12 A&P
Card Set Information
SG Ch. 11 & 12 A&P
SG 11 12
SG Ch. 11 & 12 Blood and Heart
how much blood does the average human have?
4-6L depending on size
formed elements make up how many percent of total blood volume?
the liquid portion of the blood plasma makes up how many percent of total volume?
what color is arterial blood and why is it that color?
bright red; contains high end level of O
what color is venous blood and why is it that color?
darker, dull red
gave much of its O
which has lower pH level: Venous or Arterial?
Venous because of the presence of CO
What is viscosity?
thickness/resistance of flow
what's blood viscosity compared to water?
the viscosity of blood is increased by presence of?
blood cells and plasma protein
what does viscosity contribute to in the human body?
this is the liquid part of blood and is approximately 91% water?
plasma is important for transporting these types of substances?
nutrients, waste products, hormones, antibodies, and CO
in the form of HCO
the clotting factors that are synthesized by the liver and circulate until activated to form a clot in a ruptured or damaged blood vessel are?
prothrombin, fibrinogen, albumin
most abundant plasma protein; pull tissue fluid into capillaries to maintain blood volume; synthesized by liver
blood cells are produced from stem cells called?
where is RBM formed?
flat and irregular bones (sternum, hipbone, vertebrae)
where are lymphatic tissues found?
spleen, lymph nodes, thymus glands
what is the function of RBC?
carry oxygen bonded to iron in hemoglobin
hemoglobin protein is also able to bond to _____, besides Oxygen.
hemoglobin protein accounts for how many percent of CO
Where is RBC formed?
RBC live for approximately how many days?
Damaged cells are removed from circulation by?
the tissue macrophage system
what cannot be recycled and is a waste product of hemoglobin molecule?
heme is converted to bilirubin by?
what is the extrinsic factor?
external source (food), vitamin B12
what is extrinsic factor needed for?
DNA synthesis in stem cells.
parietal cells of the stomach lining produce?
what is the intrinsic factor?
chemical that combines with b12 in food to prevent its digestion and promote it's absorption in small intestine.
a deficiency of either vitamin b12/the intrinsic factor results in?
This general function is to protect the body from pathogens and to provide immunity to certain infectious disease.
5 kinds of WBC are in two groups called?
Granular & Agranular
The most abundant phagocytes?
detoxify foreign proteins, important in allergic and parasitic infections?
contains heparin to prevent abnormal blood clotting, contains histamine which cause inflammation?
helps recognize foreign antigens?
become macrophages to phagocytize pathogens or damaged tissue?
the 4 blood types in ABO group?
A, B, AB, O
A person with type A blood has?
has "A" antigens on RBC
A person with blood type AB has?
has both A & B antigens present
A person with blood type O has?
neither A nor B antigens present.
The antibodies present in plasma blood type A?
The antibodies present in plasma blood types AB?
neither anti-B or anti-B
the antibodies present in plasma blood type O?
both anti-A and anti-B
Another RBC antigen often called "D"?
A person who is Rh _____ has this antigen on the RBC?
A person who is Rh _____ doesn't have this antigen on RBC?
Are anti-Rh antibodies naturally present in plasma of a person who is Rh negative?
How can an Rh negative person get Rh positive antibodies?
what is the function of platelets?
prevention of blood loss (hemostasis)
what are the 3 mechanism of hemostasis?
vascular spasms, platelet plugs, chemical clotting
the mechanism of homeostasis necessary in large vessels that are ruptured or cut?
what tissue in arteries and veins permits them to constrict in vascular spasms?
tissue contract is response to ______ released by platelets or to damaged cause when vessel rupture
the only effective mechanism of hemostasis for rupture of capillaries?
the rough surface of a ruptured capillary causes platelets to stick to edges and form a mechanical barrier over the opening.
once a clot has accomplished it's function, it is dissolved in a process called?
abnormal clot in an intact vessel is?
the term for a clot that dislodges and travels to another vessel is?
a person with type AB blood has?
A and B antigens on RBC & neither Anti-A nor Anti-B antibodies in plasma.
plasma protein that helps maintain blood volume by pulling tissue fluid into capillaries?
WBC that recognize foreign antigens and produce antibodies are?
when old RBC are destroyed, the waste produce _____ is formed and excreted by _____.
Bilirubin/ in bile.
What does RBM produce?
All types of Blood cells (RBC, WBC, platelets)
Plasma makes up _____ % total blood and _____% water
52-62% / 91%
extrinsic factor needed for DNA synthesis in RBM is?
oxygen-carring protein of RBC is?
blood clot is made of?
mineral needed for chemical clotting?
a large artery that is cut can contract in vascular spasm because it's wall contains?
lymphatic tissue is not found in?
hematocrit is a measure of?
% RBC in total blood
Rh factor is an antigen found on?
RBC of people who are Rh positive
in chemical clotting, fibrinogen is split to fibrin by?
The WBC that carry our most phagocytosis of pathogen are?
monocytes and neutrophils
the outer most layer is called ____ and is made of _____ .
Fibrous / Fibrous CT.
the serious membrane that lines the fibrous pericardium is called the _____ pericardium.
the serous membrane that is on the surface of the heart muscle is called?
the term systole means?
the term diastole means?
the natural pacemaker of the heart; in the wall of R-atrium?
located lower interatrial septum.
AV node (atrioventricular)
In the upper intermentricular septum?
Bundle of His
extend through the interventricular septum?
bundle of branches
to the rest of the myocardium of the ventricle?
the vital signs that is a measure of HR?
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat
stroke volume forumla?
Cardiac output (CO) = Stroke volume x HR
(C.O.) = [(S.V.)(H.R.)]
during once cardiac cycle:
the atria contract first, followed by contraction of the ventricles.
backflow of blood from the ventricles to the atria is prevented by?
mitral and tricuspid valve
each normal HB is initiated by?
backflow of blood from the arteries to the ventricles is prevented by?
aortic and pulmonary semilunar valve.
The hearts location?
medial to lungs/ superior to diapharm
purpose of coronary vessel?
supply heart with oxygenated blood.
chambers of the heart receive blood from veins are?
R and L atria
the endocardium lines the chambers of the heart and?
is smooth to prevent abnormal clotting withing the heart.
amount of blood pumped by ventricle in 1 min?
normal heart sounds cause by?
closure of the valves
changes in BP are detected by?
pressoreceptors in carotid and aortic sinuses
a heart rate below 60 bpm is called?
greater than 60?
The first part of the cardiac conduction pathway in the ventricles is the?
Bundle of His
Blood flow through the heart patients right
Superior/inferior vena cava ⇨ R Atrium ⇨ Tricuspid ⇨ R Ventricle ⇨ Pulmonary semilunar valve ⇨ Pulmonary Arteries ⇨ Lungs
Blood flow through the heart patients Left
Pulmonary Veins ⇨ L Atrium ⇨ Bicuspid (mitral valve) ⇨ L ventricle ⇨ aortic semilunar valve ⇨ aorta