1.2 The digestive system

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1.2 The digestive system
2015-02-01 20:48:57

The digestive system study guide answers
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  1. The roe of the pancreas in digestion (3)



    -13 different digestive enzymes
  2. Role of the liver in digestion (2)
    -Produces bile

    -secretes bile for emulsification of fats
  3. Role of gall bladder in digestion (2)
    -stores bile for high fat meals

    -secretes bile when needed
  4. Entero-Hepatic Circulation: Recycling of bile (5)
    -bile is made in the liver and transported to the gall bladder where it is stored

    • -when gallbladder contracts, bile released into the cystic duct
    • *cystic duct joins the common bile duct

    -bile aids in lipid digestion by enabling the large lipid globules to disperse in the watery environment of the small intestine

    -after aiding in lipid digestion, bile constituents are reabsorbed from the ileum and returned to the liver via hepatic portal vein

    -liver uses these constituents to resynthesize bile, which will be stored in the gallbladder
  5. Differences between processing in Small intestines vs large intestine) small intestines (3)
    - most digestion occurs here

    -most absorption occurs here

    • -has accessory organs that all have unique functions
    • *pancreas
    • *liver
    • *gallbladder
  6. Differences between processing in Small intestines vs large intestine) large intestine (3)
    -materials are dehydrated

    -contracts to mix materials

    -proximal part absorbs Na, Cl, H2O
  7. Hormonal nature of digestion) Sympathetic response (2)
    -stress hormones inhibit gastrin

    -inhibits gastric secretions, peristalsis, digestion

    **explanation for why stressed out people are usually constipated
  8. Hormonal nature of digestion) Parasympathetic Nervous system state (2)
    -tends to increase gastric secretions

    -promotes good digestion
  9. Function of cholecystokinin  (2)
    -stimulates gall bladder contraction

    -stimulates pancreatic secretions
  10. Function of secreting (3)
    -stimulates pancreas juice

    -stimulates enzyme secretion

    -inhibits gastrointestinal motility
  11. Function of somatostatin (2)
    -inhibits gastric secretions & motility

    Inhibits pancreatic & gallbladder secretions

    Antagonistic of cholecystokinin and secretin
  12. Benefits associated with healthy intestinal flora or probiotic intake (5)
    -enhance immunity

    -prevents colonization by pathogens

    -lower pH of the colon

    -transform/promote excretion of toxic substances

    -enhance fecal bulk
  13. Order by which foods go through digestive structures (5)
    -oral cavity



    • -small intestines
    • *D
    • *J
    • *I

    -large intestine
  14. Structures of the small intestine ) Lumen
    -opening of the intestines which chyme passes through

    *look at picks
  15. Structures of the small intestine ) folds of kerkring
    Large circular folds of mucosa that protrude into the lumen

    *look at picks
  16. Structures of the small intestine ) villi
    Finger-like projections

    *look at pics
  17. Structures of the small intestine ) microvilli (2)
    -Hair-like extensions of the enterocytes plasma membrane

    -comprise the brush border

    *look at pics
  18. Probiotics
    Foods containing live beneficial bacterial cultures
  19. prebiotics
    Food ingredients that promote beneficial bacterial growth