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By 1820, what was the gap between Western Europe and the world's poorest region (sub-Saharan Africa)?
Three to one
By 1990s, what was the gap between the richest 30 countries and the poorest (sub-Saharan Africa)?
Twenty to one
Of the richest 30 countries in the world as of 1990, twenty one were in Western Europe or were Western offshoots (ie. US, Canada, Australia).
Name the other five in Asia, two in the Middle East, and the one in Latin America.
- Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan
- Kuwait, United Arab Emirates
- Israel, Chile
What are the two general patterns that stand out in the role of geography on economic growth?
The temperate regions of the world are vastly more developed than the tropics
Remote regions that are far from the costs and navigable rivers or mountainous states with high internal/international transport costs are considerably less developed
What are the types of social system that are conducive to economic growth?
What types of social systems that are not conducive to economic growth?
Colonial rule society, socialist society, and collapsed society; non-capitalist
What is increasing returns to scale?
New innovations are produced by the stock of existing technological "blueprints" in society. Ideas beget ideas. The rich get richer because existing ideas are the source of new ideas.
What is the evidence on the role of culture on economic growth?
No primary effect on economic growth. It matters based on an indirect/secondary way of economic growth.
What is the evidence on the role of religion on economic growth?
Some religions do not have an important role in economic growth
What is the evidence on the role of colonial rule on economic growth?
Colonial rule had no long term adverse effects on economic growth
How has democratic boom given way to a democratic recession?
Democracy has retreated in many areas and the Bush administrations attempts to establish democracy in Afghanistan and Iraq have left both countries in chaos. Led to an argument that democracy reached its high water mark and is no longer on the rise
What is the new modernization?
It is not linear, has inflection points, distinctive changes in world-views
Social and cultural change is path dependent; history matters.
Modernization is not westernization and it does not lead to democracy; instead it brings social and cultural changes that make democracy probable
Are rich countries more likely to be democratic because democracy makes countries rich, or is development conducive to democracy?
Development leads to democracy. Democracy is effective to the extent that rights are on paper but also to the extent that officials respect those rights
Why is democracy effective?
Essence of democracy is that it empowers citizens. Whether its effective or not is based on to the extent to which civil and political rights exist on paper but also to the degree to which officials respect those rights
Relationship between Survival/Well being and GNP/Capita
Survival mentality = low GNP
Well-being = higher GNP
More developed leads to changed traditions moving toward a more rational/secular culture
Relationship between Traditional vs. Secular-Rational Authority and Survival vs. Well-being
Traditional societies = survival mentality; success is in the hands of spiritual power and outside their control
Secular authority separates religion and state = greater sense of well being and believe one can earn success
Less of a group mentality as society becomes more secular
Relationship between Traditional vs. Secular Rational Authority and Survival vs. Self Expression
Tradition societies = less self expression, more religious, conservative culture
Secular states = democratic, more self expression
Traditional religious believe life and wealth dependent on God put up with dictatorship
In Thomas Friedman's Hot, Flat, and Crowded, can democracy coexist with capitalism? Explain why or why not.
No, American democracy leads to serious problems like over consumption, environmental issues etc..
Democratic leaders aren't fit to lead anymore; need leaders with tech. experitise
In Mancur Olson's The Logic of Collective Action, can democracy coexist with capitalism? Explain why or why not.
No, Olson talks about the capture theory
- Certain interest groups demand money from gov't to bankrupt it
- Regulatory agency made up of ex-executives
In Erik Reinert's How Rich Countries Got Rich, can democracy coexist with capitalism? Explain why or why not.
No, because developing countries have been following with Washington Consensus, which doesn't reflect the reality of developing countries
Nandan Nilekani's Imagining India, can democracy coexist with capitalism? Explain why or why not.
- Yes, although messy, democracy lead to India's economic growth
- It could lead to countries becoming wealthier and more able to tackle things like environmental issues
Yasheng Huang's Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics, can democracy coexist with capitalism? Explain why or why not.
- Yes, but he thinks his country has not been democratic enough.
- He thinks China suffered because at the first sign of democracy there was an influx of capital and entrepreneurship. State actors felt they would lose power so there was a restriction
What decade had the most countries that transitioned into democracies?
In that decade which had the most countries that made the transition?
- East Europe and Sub-Saharan Africa
What decade had the least countries that transitioned into democracies?
In that decade which had the most countries that made the transition?
Define global corporate citizenship
Expresses the conviction that companies not only must be engaged with their stakeholders but are themselves stakeholders alongside governments and civil society
Explain why today's corporate engagement in society inevitable?
- In the contemporary world no single government can do everything.
- Even the military depends on word supplies and support provided by private industries
Define corporate governance
A company complies and exceeds with local and international laws, transparency and accountability requirements
Define corporate philanthropy
includes cash contributions, grants, donations, including salary sacrifice programs and giving of products, services, and investments
Define corporate social responsibility
Involves how a corporate responds to expectations of its stakeholders that are in anyway affected by or interested in its actions: shareholders, owners, investors, employees, suppliers, clients, consumers - while trying to increase the company's value
Define social entreprenuership
Transformation of socially and environmentally responsible ideas into products or services
What is the reason for the International labor Rights Fund's lawsuit against Unocal?
- It was filed under Alien Tort Claims Act.
- Villagers claim the company is liable for human rights abuses commited by the Myanmar military during construction of the 1.2 billion Yadana natural gas pipeline in eastern Myanmar in the 1990s. Majority is owned by China
What allows foreigners to sue each other in American courts
- The Alien Tort Claims Act
- Said they could sue each other if they couldn't expect a fair trial in their country
How have the alien tort suits affect the work of human rights activists?
It is a challenge because while most states subscribe to conventions on human rights there are few global conventions restraining corporate behavior. They are using more litigation than before
Why are companies against such litigation and how are they fighting back?
Business leaders argue enforcing human rights conventions is the province of government, that courts are applying alien tort too broadly
That litigation will inhibit companies from adopting corporate codes of conduct
Define leveraged non profit ventures
When one social entrepreneurship organization brings a number of actors together involved to bring an idea
Define hybrid non profit ventures
One arm to create profits and channel money into a charity organization that works
Define social business ventures
Profit is not a primary goal. The main goal is to meet social needs
Does the author of this op-ed believe that multinational corporation must pursue corporate social responsibility?
It would be crazy to object rich companies writing big checks for good causes but we shouldn't let that distract us from the fact that the chief social responsibility of business to make money
And the social responsibility of government is to be sure that perfectly proper corporate greed is channeled and constrained for the greater good of us all
What does the authors view on how US corporations should confront ATCA?
The risks to business reputation from allegations of human rights abuses in particular should force companies and directors to consider these issues seriously, irrespective of whether an ultimate finding of liability is likely
Who is Diogenes?
- The first person to claim he was a citizen of the world
- Born in late 5th century BCE in Sinope on the southern coast of the Black Sea (now Turkey)
What is kosmou polites?
Where the word cosmopolitan comes from (meaning belonging to all the world; not limited to one part of the world)
What are three ideas from Diogenes that are still relevant?
- We don't need a single world government
- We must care for the fate of all humans
- We have too much to gain from conversations with one another across our differences
How does globalization make the concept of citizenship real?
Knowledge about other citizens lives and the power to affect them
Why do we need a cosmopolitan spirit?
To think of us as all bound together but also to accept we will make different choices within and across nations about how to make our lives
Do people live in monocultural, mono religious, monolingual nation states?
No and they never have
Is bloodshed needed for global sovereignty?
No, but the EU is not evolving towards a nation-state with a single central sovereign.
It is seeing the creation of a great network of diverse centers of law and authority - some super national many infranational
Is the European Union an example of global sovereignty?
No, but the EU is not evolving toward a nation-state with a single central soverign.
It's using the creation of a network of diverse centers of law and authority some supernational many infranational
What are the implications of defining global citizenship as a way to foster an understanding of how the world works?
Globalization citizenship is not an ideology or legal status. It is an understanding of how the world works
Certain duties: Protect the environment, should have more then one identity, you have human rights
What is global competency and are US undergraduate students prepared to undertake the challenges of a globalized environment?
The ability to understand the interconnectedness of todays world; No
What should be taught to students regarding global citizenship and what role does service learning play?
Students must be taught to take the role of the other and view various perspectives of specific situations.
Service learning teaches students how to be intercultural
How can instructors measure students understanding of global citizenship?
They are difficult to assess and may only become apparent over time
What is it that the author believes we can learn from the Dalai Lama when it comes to business management?
- "My future is your future"
- We are all connected in some way and we should all benefit from each other
What country has the highest percentage of citizens traveling to another country in the last five years?
What country has the lowest percentage of its citizens traveling to another country in the last five years?
What country has the highest percentage of its citizens who consider themselves as a citizen of the world?
What country has the highest percentage of its citizens who consider themselves as equally a citizen of the world and their country?
Define and provide the characteristics of global competence.
Includes the ability to work and communicate effectively in a variety of cultures/languages and the capacity to grasp the interdependence of nations in a global economy
Across academic disciplines will global competence look the same?
No, it means something different to the educator
What level of competency is considered sufficient?
- It is a lifelong process...?
- At the Univ. of Wisconsin - global portfolio - record relevant courses and experiences - how these activities translate into global abilities that would be attractive
What percentage of UW-Madison's business undergraduates earn some credits abroad?
What about MBA students?
More then 1/3
More than 1/2
The Gallup Organization released findings from a Global Perspectives Inventory suggesting that those who see themselves as global citizens most often also feel a need to do what?
- A need to give back to society
- Work for the rights of others
- Demonstrate a willingness to grapple with complex issues that may present more than one solution
Harvard's International Education Policy Program recently argues that globally minded people would more likely respond to world events in what way?
With empathy, interest, and understanding
What is global mindset?
Refers to an individuals ability to work effectively with individuals, groups, and organizations from other parts of the world
Three major components for global mindset?
- Intellectual capital
- Psychological capital
- Social capital
What is intellectual capital?
- Global business savvy
- Cognitive complexity
- Cosmopolitan outlook
- Passion for diversity
- Quest for adventure
- Self assurance
- Inter cultural empathy
- Interpersonal impact