1.3.1 Carbohydrates I

Card Set Information

Author:
efrain12
ID:
294562
Filename:
1.3.1 Carbohydrates I
Updated:
2015-02-01 21:48:36
Tags:
Meta
Folders:

Description:
Carbohydrates I
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user efrain12 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What does it mean that human enzymes are stereospecific ?
    enzymes are stereospecific because they can only bind to one specific structure and will not bind with others even if the molecules are stereoisomers
  2. Differences between amylose, amylopectin, glycogen) (2)
    -glucose connected through a(1-4) bonds in amylase, glucose connected through a(1-4) and a(1-6) in amylopectin, glycogen has same bonds as amylopectin but more frequent a(1-6)

    -glycogen is storage form of CHO in humans and amylase/amylopectin is storage form in CHO in plants
  3. Similarities and differences between cellulose & amylose ) similarities (2)
    -glucose arranged similarly

    -made up of glucose
  4. Similarities and differences between cellulose & amylose ) differences (2)
    -cellulose has b(1-4) instead of a(1-4)

    -cellulose is indigestible bc of alpha-amylase can only digest a(1-4) bonds
  5. Interplay of passive and active diffusion in the absorption of glucose into an enterocytes) Active (2)
    -sodium potassium pump on basolateral membrane pumps out Na from the cell, which makes Na want to come inside b/c of the lack of Na inside the cell

    • -glucose or glaactose goes into the cell with Na through facilitated diffusion symport
    • *Na can only go inside the it brings glucose inside also
  6. Interplay of passive and active diffusion in the absorption of glucose into an enterocytes) passive
    • -glucose/glaactose enter apical surface through GLUT2 then comes out through GLUT2 on basolateral
    • **1st comes in passively bc at 1st there is more glucose in lumen than in cells, so they shuttle in that way. It comes out through the bottom bc Na/glucose symport is packing cell of glucose so glucose will want to come out through GLUT2
  7. Role of insulin and GLUT4 in the absorption of glucose in to a cell) (2)
    -Role of insulin is to shuttle glucose into cells

    • -when cell receptor sense insulin, phosphorylation cascade occurs in cells
    • *more GLUT4 is translated in nucleus/transcribed into PRO by ribosomes in rough ER and sent to GA
    • *GA releases GLUT4 to migrate to P.M
    • *Glut4 removes glucose from the blood by taking it inside cell for storage or use
  8. Consequences of uncontrolled blood glucose levels ) (3)
    -kidney diseases

    -glysylation of nerves

    -infections
  9. Implications of level processing and food combining in GI) (2)
    -GI levels fluctuate by numerous factors so its hard to make diet out of it

    -carb foods make you crash faster and harder so its better to combine it with PRO to not crash as bad
  10. Mono that make up Maltese, lactose, sucrose ) Maltose
    2 glucose
  11. Mono that make up Maltese, lactose, sucrose ) lactose
    galctose and glucose
  12. Mono that make up Maltese, lactose, sucrose ) sucrose
    Fructose and glucose
  13. Where starch digestion occurs and where it does not occur) (2)
    -begins in mouth by salivary alpha-amylase

    • -does not occur in stomach bc of low pH levels deactivate a-amylase
    • *restarts in pancreas, bc it balances out the pH with bicarbonate so it release pancreatic alpha amylase to resume crab digestion
  14. The locations where amylase is made, what it does, what acvtvoates it and what inacvteiets it in digestive process) where is it made?
    Amylase is made in saliva and pancreas
  15. The locations where amylase is made, what it does, what acvtvoates it and what inacvteiets it in digestive process) inactivates amylase
    Stomach because of the pH shift
  16. The locations where amylase is made, what it does, what acvtvoates it and what inacvteiets it in digestive process) what it does?
    • Breaks down amylose to mono by breaking down a(1-4) bonds
    • *it cannot do a(1-6) & b(1-4)
  17. The locations where amylase is made, what it does, what acvtvoates it and what inacvteiets it in digestive process) activates amylase (2)
    -salivary glands by presence of CHO

    -pancreas by releasing bicarbonate to increase pH levels favorable to resume cho digestion by pancreas alpha amylase
  18. Role of Maltese, lactose, sucrase) Maltase
    Breaks down Maltese to 2 glucose
  19. Role of Maltese, lactose, sucrose) lactase
    Breaks down lactose to glucose & glaactose
  20. Role of Maltese, lactose, sucrose) sucrase
    Breaks down sucrose into fructose & glucose
  21. Roughly the grams of glucose a human can absorb in one day and why?
    • 5400 grams per day because small intestines are very efficient at absorption
    • *microvilli increases S.A thus absorbs more
  22. 3 immediate fates of glucose in the liver )
    -stored as glycogen in liver

    -returned to blood to maintain blood glucose levels

    -catabolized for energy according to the liver needs

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview