1.3.2 Crabs II

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efrain12
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294569
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1.3.2 Crabs II
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2015-02-03 17:40:33
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Carbohydrates II
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  1. overall purpose of each of the metabolic pathways of CHO metabolism ) Glycogenesis
    Synthesis of glycogen from glucose
  2. overall purpose of each of the metabolic pathways of CHO metabolism ) glycogenolysis
    Breakdown of glycogen into glucose
  3. overall purpose of each of the metabolic pathways of CHO metabolism ) glycolysis
    Oxidation of glucose to private or acetyl CoA
  4. overall purpose of each of the metabolic pathways of CHO metabolism ) gluconeogenesis
    Production of glucose from non-CHO intermediates
  5. overall purpose of each of the metabolic pathways of CHO metabolism ) Penrose-phosphate pathway
    Production of 5-carbon monosaccharides & NADPH
  6. overall purpose of each of the metabolic pathways of CHO metabolism ) TCA cycle
    Oxidation of acetyl CoA to CO2 & H2O & ATP & NADH/FADH
  7. overall purpose of each of the metabolic pathways of CHO metabolism ) ETC
    Production of ATP from NADH/FADH
  8. Know which molecules you have at beginning and end of pathway by name) glycogenesis
    Start: glucose

    End: glycogen
  9. Know which molecules you have at beginning and end of pathway by name) Glycogenolysis
    Start: Glycogen

    End: Glucose
  10. Know which molecules you have at beginning and end of pathway by name) glycolysis
    start: 1 glucose

    End: 2 privates
  11. Know which molecules you have at beginning and end of pathway by name) how much ATP does the glycolysis pathway used ? But what does it get out of?
    It uses 2 ATP, but make 4 ATP & 2 NADH

    **net yield from glycolysis: 8ATP
  12. Know which molecules you have at beginning and end of pathway by name) TCA cycle
    start: 2 acetyl CoA

    End: CO2, H2O, ATP, NADH, FADH
  13. Know which molecules you have at beginning and end of pathway by name) ETC
    Starts: NADH & FADH

    End: H2O & ATP (32-38)

    **this is the pathway in which we generate the majority of our ATP
  14. Know which molecules you have at beginning and end of pathway by name) PPP
    Start: glucose

    End: NADPH
  15. Study the diagrams to get better at tracing the pathways
  16. Know the energy substrates created by glycolysis and the TCA cycle and be able to discuss in general how they use the ETC to generate ATP)
    NADH & FADH carry the necessary power (hydrogen: cleaves into proton and electron) to power the machinery that creates the enormous amount of ATP (ATPase) by giving up their hydrogen to the embedded receptor protein in the ETC. The proteins shuttle along the electrons as they puts the protons to the outside of the cell to create a positive gradient. The ATPase uses this concentration to force out the protons to create ATP.
  17. Be able to discuss how anaerobic conditions necessitate lactic acid fermentation  and why we need to produce lactate to keep glycolysis pathway running)
    SInce TCA and ETC are dependent on oxygen to function, if we do not have oxygen, then we only have the ATP created by glycolysis (not much) and the NADH (that we cannot oxidize through ETC). Under these conditions, we quickly produce all of our NAD to NADH so we can no longer perform glycolysis. SO thats when we use the pyruvate that was produced in glycolysis and takes on the hydrogen from NADH to make more NAD+ so glycolysis can continue while also creating lactate (private + hydrogen).
  18. Be able to discuss the challenge of gluconeogenesis in terms of the 3 regulatory irreversible steps of glycolysis, do not name enzyme names) (1+3)
    • The challenge in gluconeogenesis is that there are 3 irreversible steps
    • -the way around private Kinase (1st step in gluconeogenesis) is pyruvate enters TCA (mitochondria) and become oxaloacetate. TCA cycle reactions can be reverse so it turns oxaloacetate into malate (oxaloacetate cannot cross the membrane to outside, but malate can). Once outside the membrane, malate reverts to oxaloacetate and then to PEP bypassing pyruvate Kinase completely.
    • -then fructose 1-6 biphosphate becomes fructose-6-phosphate through fructose 1,6 phosphatase.
    • -Glucose 6 phosphate becomes glucose through glucose-6-phosphatase
  19. Know why gluconeogenesis occurs only in liver and kidneys and not muscle or adipose tissue
    • Only tissues that contain glucose-6-phsopatase can perform gluconeogenesis
    • *muscle nor Fat have it
    • **it is to turn glucose-6-phosphate to glucose
  20. Know the effects of insulin and glucagon on the pathways in regards to whether they stimulate or inhibit them) Insulin turns on
    Anabolic pathways
  21. Know the effects of insulin and glucagon on the pathways in regards to whether they stimulate or inhibit them) Glucagon tuners on
    catabolic pathways
  22. Know the effects of insulin and glucagon on the pathways in regards to whether they stimulate or inhibit them) what does insulin stimulate? (3)
    -glut4 migration

    -glycolysis

    -Glycogenesis
  23. Know the effects of insulin and glucagon on the pathways in regards to whether they stimulate or inhibit them) insulin inhibits ....(2)
    -gluconeogenesis

    -glycogenolysis
  24. Know the effects of insulin and glucagon on the pathways in regards to whether they stimulate or inhibit them) what does glucagon stimulkate? (2)
    -gluconeogenesis

    -glycogenolysis
  25. Know the effects of insulin and glucagon on the pathways in regards to whether they stimulate or inhibit them) glucagon inhibits (2)
    Glycolysis

    Glycogenesis
  26. Cursory understanding of the difference between allosteric modification and covalent modification)  what is allosteric modification
    • Presence or lack of a downstream product inhibits or stimulates a reaction
    • *enzyme that is affected usually catalyzes reaction
    • **ex) phosphofructokinase inhibited in presence of ATP but stimulated in presence of AMP
    • *** Increase in ATP means no energy is needed
    • *** Increase of AMP means low in energy
  27. Cursory understanding of the difference between allosteric modification and covalent modification)  what is covalent modification ?
    • Hormones may activate or inactivate enzymes through causing their phosphorylation or dephosphorykation
    • *insulin stimulating GLUT4 production
  28. Describe some of the differences between high fructose corn syrup and pure fructose )  (2)
    -HCFS is 50/50 fructose/glucose

    -pure fructose leads to increase fat deposit is around organs & increase insulin resistance

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