Shakespeare: General Background

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Shakespeare: General Background
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2015-02-02 12:18:41
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Shakespeare
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  1. Elizabethan England
    • Early Modern Period
    • -Renaissance refers only to Italy
    • -Begins at 1485 with the end of the Plantegenet reign and began of Tudor (Henry VII)
    • -People are studying history, science, language and literature because of print, liberating
  2. Struggles between Catholics and Protestants during Elizabethan times
    • Supremacy of kings over church
    • -Elizabeth was Protesant
    • -Catholics were oppressed
    • -Elizabeth tried to compromise and allowed to Catholics to live mostly normal lives
  3. Greatest military rival to england during Elizabethan times
    • Spain, defeated at the Armada 1588
    • -Made england a supreme naval power in the world
  4. After defeat of Spain in 1588
    • Relations with France normalized
    • General peace was the norm as was prosperity
    • Colonies established throughout the world
    • Boys required to go to Grammer school, by 1600 1/3 of males were literate
    • No famines, healthy harvests, food imported from everywhere
  5. King James 1
    • 1603-1625
    • King of Scotland 1567
    • Crowned king of England and Ireland on Elizabeth's death
    • Creation of UK
  6. William Shakespeare
    • Birth accepted as 23 April 1564
    • Mother, Leather merchant, father, landed heiress
    • Married Anne Hathaway, 28 November 1582, she was 26 and pregnant
    • -Had 3 kids
    • Died 23 April 1616
  7. Shakespeares lost years
    • 1585-1594
    • -Spectulation that between 1580-1588 he worked in london as a horse attendant
    • 1592- evidence that he was an actor and started writing plays when Play writght Robert Greene wrote of him
  8. Shakespeare 1592-1612
    • Became partner of Lord Chamberlain's men in 1592
    • 1593 - theatures closed due to plague
    • 1597- 15 of 37 plays published
    • 1599- bought stratford real estate
    • 1593-1601 154 sonnets written
    • Retired 1616
  9. Shakespeare's professional career
    • Member of The Company 1592
    • -When George Carey took over in 1596 is became the Lord Chamberlain's Men
    • -Rivals The Admiral's Men
    • 1603 another plague 33,000 die
    • The company preformed in london no touring 1592-1611
    • -Began in The theatre, until puritan shut it down, played at borrowed play houses until 1599 -The Globe
  10. First Quarto
    • 1594
    • 18 plays
  11. First Folio
    • 1623 
    • 36 plays
    • Prepared by Hemmings and Condell
    • Dedicated to 3rd Earl of Pembroke and brother
    • Designed to replace unauthorized version
    • Contained actors cues
    • Varried based on typesetter and proofreader
    • Cost 1 pount ($250)
    • 750 printed only 228 exist
  12. Second Folio
    • 1632-1641 editions
    • Updated language
  13. Third Folio
    • 1663
    • Included plays not by shakespeare
  14. 16th century thoughts of shakespeare
    • Englands greatest poet -Meres
    • "Not of an age, but for all time"-Jonson
  15. 17th century thoughts of shakespeare
    Overrated, improbable plots, written for ignorant audience, but was imaginative -Dryden
  16. 18th century thoughts of shakespeare
    • Considered like Home, an ancient writer, loved the emotional/intellectual content of the plays - Johnson
    • Pope edited and revised all the plays, basically writing them in his own fashion
  17. 19th century thoughts of shakespeare
    creative genius - ColeridgeRomantic poets venerated and made him famous again
  18. 20th century thoughts of shakespeare
    invented the idea of being human - Bloom
  19. Who wrote shakespeare's plays?
    • Christopher Marlow - based on his fame and ability
    • Baconian Theory - Fancis Bacon, hid because he was a public figure
    • Edward de Vere, 17th earl of Oxford
    • -Playwrite, father owned Oxford's men, no evidendence exists
    • Most now think it was shakespeare because of Ben Jonson's epitaph
  20. Theatre in shakespeare's time
    • actors were criminals
    • all roles played by men
    • Theatures outside city walls and actually outside
    • Audiences were not quiet
  21. Costume colors
    Blue, indigo, gold, brown, orange, red, pink, crimson, black, purple, white, yelloq, green, gray
    • Blue - servant
    • Indigo - richness and power
    • Gold - wealth
    • Brown - poverty, humility
    • Orange - courage
    • Red - control, importance
    • Pink - happiness
    • crimson - church
    • black - authority, death
    • Purple - royalty
    • White - wealth, virtuous
    • Yellow - hope
    • Green - epiphany, new start, faith
    • Gray - mourning, regret
  22. Strucutres of theatres
    • Wooden arenas, similar to roman design
    • State higher than the pit where groundlings stood
    • Royalty had boxes to shit in
    • No scenery, trap doors, visuals
    • No stage crews
    • Sears curved around the front of stage
    • No rehersals or lines given before performance - cue acting
  23. The Globe theatre
    • 1599 -southwark, Richard Burbage had it built 100 foot diameter
    • reused timber from the theatre
    • 20 sided polygon
    • seated 3000
    • Red flag - history, White flag - comedy Black flag - tragedy
    • closed 1642 and because housing for poor

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