Module 3 Tissues

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Module 3 Tissues
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  1. What is the definition of a tissue?
    Groups of cells similar in structure and function
  2. Name the four basic tissue types.
    • Epithelial tissues
    • Connective tissue
    • Nervous tissue
    • Muscle tissue
  3. What are the two main types of epithelial tissues by location?
    • 1.Covering and lining epithelia found on external and internal surfaces
    • 2.Glandular epithelia form
    • secretory tissue in glands
  4. Cells have polarity - apical (upper, free) and basal (lower, attached) surfaces. Apical surfaces may bear microvilli (e.g., small intestine) or cilia (e.g., respiratory epithelium).

    Noncellular basal lamina of glycoprotein and collagen lies adjacent to basal surface.

    Are composed of closely packed cells. They continuous sheets held together by tight junctions and desmosomes.

    Supported by a connective tissue reticular lamina under the basal lamina.

    Avascular but innervated

    High rate of regeneration
    Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue
  5. Classification of 1 layer of cells?
    simple epithelium
  6. Classification of 2 layers or more cells?
    stratified epithelium
  7. Stratified epithelia are named according to the?
    apical layer of cells.
  8. Classification based on?
    The number of cell layers
  9. Which tissue form boundaries between different environments?
    Epithelial tissues
  10. Which tissue supports, protects, and binds other tissues together?
    Connective tissue
  11. Which tissue forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves?
    Nervous tissue
  12. Which tissue has the ability to contract to cause movement?
    Muscle tissue
  13. Which Epithelial Tissue by location is found on external and internal surfaces?
    Covering and lining epithelia
  14. Which type of Epithelial Tissue by location form secretory tissue in glands?
    Glandular epithelia
  15. Description: Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplest of the epithelia.

    Which epthelium is it?
    Simple squamous epithelium
  16. Function: Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple squamous epithelium
  17. Location: Kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels; lining of ventral body cavity (serosae).

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple squamous epithelium
  18. What are the two other locations of Simple Squamous?
    • Endothelium
    • Mesothelium
  19. In Simple Squamous what term is used for the lining of lymphatic vessels, blood vessels, and heart?
    Endothelium
  20. In Simple Squamous what term is used for the epithelium of serous membranes in the ventral body cavity?
    Mesothelium
  21. Description: Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple cuboidal epithelium
  22. Function: Secretion and absorption.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple cuboidal epithelium
  23. Location: Kidney tubules;ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple cuboidal epithelium
  24. Description: Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells)

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple columnar epithelium
  25. Function: Absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple columnar epithelium
  26. Location: Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal),gallbladder, and excretory ducts of someglands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regionsof the uterus.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Simple columnar epithelium
  27. Description: Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reachingthe free surface; nuclei seen atdifferent levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  28. Function: Secretion, particularly ofmucus; propulsion of mucus byciliary action.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  29. Location: Nonciliated type in male’ssperm-carrying ducts and ducts oflarge glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upperrespiratory tract

    Which epithelium is it?
    Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  30. Description: Thick membrane composed of several cell layers;basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers

    Which epithelium is it?
    Stratified squamous epithelium
  31. Function: Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Stratified squamous epithelium
  32. Location: Nonkeratinized type formsthe moist linings of the esophagus,mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Stratified squamous epithelium
  33. Description: Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells domeshaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Transitional epithelium
  34. Function: Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine.
    Which epithelium is it?
    Transitional epithelium
  35. Location: Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra.

    Which epithelium is it?
    Transitional epithelium
  36. A______consists of one or more cells that makes and secretes a mostly watery (aqueous) fluid.
    Gland
  37. What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?
    Exocrine glands secrete their product into a duct, whereas endocrine glands have lost this connection to a surface. Therefore, they are also called ductless glands.
  38. ______secrete hormones that travel through bodyfluids (interstitial fluid, lymph, blood) to their target organs
    Endocrine glands
  39. _____are more numerous than endocrine glands. They secrete their products into ducts that release them onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities.
    Exocrine glands
  40. Glands that consist of one cell only are called____
    unicellular glands
  41. Glands that are composed of many cells are called
    Multicellular glands
  42. The only important unicellular exocrine gland is the____
    goblet cell
  43. ____are composed of a duct and a secretoryunit. They are classified according to their duct type (simple or compound) andthe structure of their secretory units (tubular, alveolar, or tubuloalveolar).
    Multicellular exocrine glands
  44. ____secrete their products by exocytosis (e.g., pancreas, sweat and salivary glands).
    Merocrine glands
  45. _____products are secreted by rupture of gland cells (e.g., sebaceous glands)
    holocrine glands
  46. What are the different modes of secretion?
    • Merocrine
    • Holocrine
  47. Most abundant and widely distributed tissue type?
    Connective Tissue
  48. Name the four classes of connective tissue?
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone tissue
    • Blood
  49. Name the three fiber types found in connective tissue?
    • Collagen(white fibers)
    • Elastic
    • Reticular
  50. What fiber is also known as white fibers?
    Collagen
  51. What fiber is has Networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch ?
    Elastic
  52. What fiber is has Short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers ?
    Reticular
  53. What fiber is the Strongest and most abundant
    & Provides high tensile strength?
    Collagen
  54. Medium through which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and cells
    Ground substance
  55. The three Ground substance Components:
    • Interstitial fluid
    • Adhesion proteins (“glue”)
    • Proteoglycans
  56. ×Protein core + large polysaccharides (chrondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid)

    ×Trap water in varying amounts, affecting the viscosity of the ground substance
    Proteoglycans
  57. (“glue”)
    Adhesion proteins
  58. Major Functions of Connective Tissue?
    • Binding and support
    • Protection
    • Insulation
    • Transportation (blood)
  59. Mitotically active and secretory cells =
    “blasts”
  60. Mature cells =
    “cytes”
  61. The cells Fibroblasts and fibrocytes are found in_______
    connective tissue proper
  62. The Cells Chondroblasts and chondrocytes are found in_____
    cartilage
  63. The cells Osteoblasts and osteocytes are found in____
    bone
  64. Hematopoietic stem cells are found in_____
    bone marrow
  65. Fat cells, white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages are other cells found in____
    Connective Tissue
  66. What makes connective tissue different from other basic tissues?
    Epithelial, nervous, and muscle tissue are defined by their cells, whereas connective tissue is defined by a nonliving extracellular matrix that is produced by the tissue cells.
  67. Which tissue have:

    Varying degrees of vascularity

    Cells separated by nonliving extracellular matrix (ground substance and fibers)
    Connective tissues
  68. What are two types of Connective Tissue Proper?
    • Loose connective tissue
    • Dense connective tissue
  69. What are three types of Loose connective tissue?
    • Areolar
    • Adipose
    • Reticular
  70. What are three types of Dense connective tissue?
    • Dense regular
    • Dense irregular
    • Elastic
  71. Description: Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts,macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, areolar
  72. Function: Wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, areolar
  73. Location: Widely distributed under epithelia of body, e.g., forms lamina propria of mucous membranes;packages organs; surrounds capillaries.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, areolar
  74. Description: Matrix as in areolar,but very sparse; closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, adipose
  75. Function: Provides reserve food fuel; insulates against heat loss;supports and protects organs.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, adipose
  76. Location: Under skin in the hypodermis; around kidneys and eyeballs; within abdomen; in breasts

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, adipose
  77. Description: Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, reticular
  78. Function: Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, reticular
  79. Location: Lymphoid organs (lymphnodes, bone marrow, and spleen).

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    loose connective tissue, reticular
  80. Description: Primarily parallel collagen fibers; a few elastic fibers;major cell type is the fibroblast.
    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, dense regular
  81. Function: Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, dense regular
  82. Location: Tendons, mostligaments, aponeuroses.( Also in Shoulder joint,Ligament)

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, dense regular
  83. Description: Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers;major cell type is the fibroblast

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, dense irregular
  84. Function: Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, dense irregular
  85. Location: Fibrous capsules of organs and of joints; dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract. (Also found in Fibrous joint capsule)

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, dense irregular
  86. Location: Walls of large arteries;within certain ligaments associated with the vertebral column; within the walls of the bronchial tubes. (Also in Aorta)

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, elastic
  87. Description: Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of elastic fibers.
    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, elastic
  88. Function: Allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration.

    Which Connective tissue proper?
    dense connective tissue, elastic
  89. Name the three types of cartilage:
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • Elastic cartilage
    • Fibrocartilage
  90. True or false. All types of Cartilage are avascular?
    True
  91. Description: Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature(chondrocytes) lie in lacunae.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    hyaline
  92. Function: Supports and reinforces;has resilient cushioning properties;resists compressive stress.
    Which type of Cartilage?
    hyaline
  93. Location: Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the endsof long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    hyaline
  94. Description: Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    elastic
  95. Function: Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    elastic
  96. Location: Supports the external ear (pinna); epiglottis.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    elastic
  97. Description: Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    fibrocartilage
  98. Function: Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    fibrocartilage
  99. Location: Intervertebral discs;pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint.

    Which type of Cartilage?
    fibrocartilage
  100. Osseous tissue is another word for?
    Bone tissue
  101. Has a hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers. Mature osteocytes lie in lacunae.

    is very well vascularized.
    Bone Tissue
  102. _____supports and protects (by enclosing) internal organs and the nervous system, provides levers for the muscles to act on, and stores calcium and other minerals and fat. The marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation.
    Bone
  103. Consists of cells (red & white blood cells) surrounded by a liquid matrix (plasma).
    blood
  104. It transports respiratory gases, nutrients, hormones, wastes, and other substances.
    blood
  105. Name Nervous tissue two types of cell?
    • Neurons (nerve cells)
    • Neuroglia
  106. ______are nonirritable supporting cells
    Neuroglia
  107. _____are excitable cells that form the majoractive parts of the nervous system
    Neurons (nerve cells)
  108. Name three types of muscle tissues?
    • Smooth muscle
    • Skeletal muscle
    • Cardiac muscle
  109. -This Muscle tissue is the oldest muscle tissue.
    -Found mostly in the walls of hollow organs, such as bladder and stomach.
    -It has spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei.
    -The cells are arranged closely to form sheets or muscle tissue.
    -Unlike the other muscle tissue types this tissue has no striations.
    -Is involuntary and can even generate its own contraction rhythm.
    Smooth muscle
  110. Smooth muscle is involuntary or voluntary?
    involuntary
  111. -This muscle tissue is found in the wall of the heart only.
    -It has branching, striated, usually uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (so-called intercalated discs).
    -Just like smooth muscle this muscle is involuntary and can generate its own contraction rhythm.
    Cardiac muscle
  112. Cardiac muscle is involuntary or voluntary?
    involuntary
  113. -This Muscle tissue is voluntary and needs signals from the nervous system to contract.
    -It has long, cylindrical cells with many nuclei and shows striations.
    -Skeletal muscles attach to bones or skin and help the body to move and manipulate its environment.
    Skeletal muscle
  114. Skeletal muscle is involuntary or voluntary?
    voluntary
  115. Cover internal or external body surfaces.
    Epithelial Membranes
  116. The _____ or skin covers the outside of the body
    cutaneous membrane
  117. _____ or _____ line body cavities that are open to the exterior, such as the digestive tract and the airways.
    Mucous membranes or mucosae
  118. _____or _____ are only found in closed body cavities, such as the pericardial cavity around the heart or the abdominopelvic cavity.

    The membrane is made of mesothelium and areolar tissue underneath.
    Serous membranes or serosae
  119. ______line body cavities open to the exterior
    Mucous membranes
  120. _________line body cavities closed to the exterior
    Serous membranes
  121. The layer lining the wall of the cavityis called_____
    parietal serosa (paries =wall)
  122. the layer covering the organs inside the cavity the _______
    visceral serosa (viscerum = internal organ).
  123. The gap between the two layers forms a ____that is filled with fluid to reduce friction between the layers. The cavity can be almost nonexistent, e.g., pericardial cavity, or fairly big, e.g., peritoneal cavity.
    cavity

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