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One group of microbes, _______, are often found in extreme environments and do not cause disease.
The botanist Carolus Linnaeus is remember for his development of a ________ system.
Joseph Lister is remembered for his work advancing the idea of _____ in health care settings.
A set of postulates that can be used to prove the cause of some infectious diseases was first proposed by ______.
_____ is a process of heating liquids such as milk or juices to prevent rapid spoilage.
The ______ is a widely used staining technique that separates bacteria into two large groups based on cell wall composition.
The use of chemicals to control microbial growth within a host without harming host cells is called _______.
The study of the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms is called ______.
Two scientists whose vaccine work began the field of immunology were ________.
Jenner and Pasteur
In 1958 Beadle and Tatum used Neurospora, a mold, to discover that one gene's activity is related to the ______ coded by that gene.
List the steps of the Scientific Method:
- 1. Observation that leads to a question
- 2. Hypothesis/prediction (if, then question)
- 3. Experiment
- 4. Review results
- 5. Accept, Reject, or Modify experiment
What was Snow recognized for?
infection control and epidemiology --> the study of disease occurrences and spreading
An atom of an element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
- *Protons are persistent; never change*
- 13C represents 6 protons and 7 neutrons
What is the formula for determining atomic mass/weight
What are some uses for isotopes in microbiology?
- medical diagnosis
- medical treatment
Name three types of bonds:
- Ionic (donating e-)
- Nonpolar Covalent (equal sharing of e-)
- Polar Covalent (unequal sharing of e-; electronegativity)
- Hydrogen (weakest, intermolecular bonding)
- energy in
- synthesis and dehydration reactions
- energy out
- decomposition and hydrolysis reactions
Properties of Water:
- great solvent
- heat absorbent
- participates in many chemical reactions
Sugar builds _____
Fatty acids build _____
fats (triglycerides), lipids, and membranes
Amino acids build _____.
Nucleotides build ______.
What is a saturated fat?
- filled with hydrogens
- single bonds
What is an unsaturated fat?
having double or triple bonds
Give examples of lipids:
- fats (triglycerides)
- steroids (cholesterol)
Categories of Carbohydrates: