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What are the four time periods?
classical, medieval, modern, contemporary
When was the classical period
500BC- 400 CE
When was the Medieval period?
When was the Modern Period?
When was the contemporary period?
What are the four Idols?
- Tribe- thinking due to human nature
- cave-individual prejudices we bring b/c of background
- Market Place- center of imprecise use of language
- theater- fallacies tat occur when we accept fashionable ideas uncritically
what are ehos?
What are logos?
what are pathos
What are the canons of rhetoric and who created them?
- Aristotle and Cicero
- Invention-adapting to audience
- arrangement-logical organization
who are the sophists
professional speech teachers (not respectable), taught tricks of persuasive speaking for court
What Was rhetoric in the Classical period?
study of communication
What was rhetoric in te Medieval Period?
secondary to theology
what was rhetoric in the modern period
What are the 4 directions of Rhetoric?
- Classical-recover insight of classics and adapt
- psychological- how people could influence one another
- belletristic-focused on writing and speaking art (drama, poetry)
- elocutionary-elaborate system of instruction to improve speakers verbal and nonverbal presentations
what period where the sophists a part of
Who are rhetoricians?
teach and study rhetoric
who was cicero
- 1. prominent roman politician
- 2.considered to be Rom's finest orator
- 3.died by opposing Mark Antony
- 4.delivered many famous speeches
- 5. wrote extensively on communication theory
- 1. student of plato
- 2. attended plato's academy
- 3. started the Lycum
- 4. tutor for alexander the great
What is communication??
- the process of sharing
- meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues
What constitutes communication?
- Communication must involve human beings
- Communication must involve symbolism
- verbal or nonverbal
- Communication can be intentional or unintentional
- Communication must include a response
- direct or indirect
- Communication must involve a sender and a
What are the levels of communication?
- Intrapersonal Communication
- Interpersonal Communication
- Small Group Communication
- Public Communication
- Mass Communication
Misconceptions about communication
- Communication does not always require complete
- Communication is not always a good thing
- No single person or event causes another’s reaction
- Communication will not solve all problems
- Meanings rest in people, not words
- Communication is not simple
- More communication is not always better
- There should always be an “S” on communication
idealized representations of a ertain kind of person
characteristics htat we notice on a daily basis
tells us what comes next in a sequence of actions
frame of reference
- past experiences that affect
- every aspect of communication and interaction
- personal stories we create to make sense
- of our world
saving our conscious attention for important situations
state of alert and lively awareness; we actively think about the world
differences between hearing and listening
- Listening is voluntary, while hearing is involuntary
- Listening is active
- Listening is a learned skill
- Listening implies using the message received
- Not everyone has the same experience of hearing and
- understanding the same message
stages in the listening process
- storage and retrieval
- the process of selectively focusing on certain events
- avoid distractions, determine purpose, right attitude
- assign meaning to symbolic uces
- evaluate message quality by listening and thinking critically
- identify purpose
- judge info carefullly
- test info
- delay final eval
listeners have an obligation to respond
types of listening
- content oriented
- people oriented
- action oriented
- time oriented
storage and retrieval
- cannot remembert message= failure
- false memory-info that is painful or unpleasant can be pushed asside
Why is listening hard?
- Lack of effort
- Message overload
- Rapid thought
- Faulty assumptions
- Cultural differences
- Media influences
- We’d rather be talking!
faulty listening behaviors
- Selective listening
- Defensive listening
- Insulated listening
- Insensitive listening
- Stage hogging
differences between written and spoken
- Less formal than written language
- Contains more fragments & contractions
- More personal references
- (i.e. me, you, we, us)
- “a rule-governed symbol system that allows its
- users to generate meaning and, in the process,
- to define reality.”
subsystems of language
- Sound pattern of language: phonology
- Study of meaning in a language: semantics
- Study of sentence structure: syntactics
- Study of how we use language in social contexts: pragmatics
- Who talks the most?
- What do men and women talk about?
- Do women and men use different words?
- Do men and women structure sentences the
- same way?
- Who controls interaction flows?
- Who chooses the topics of talk?
- Do women or men tell more jokes?
- Are men or women more open?
- a pleasant term substituted for a more direct but
- potentially less pleasant one
- a deliberately vague statement that can be interpreted in
- more than one way
low context cultures
- use language to express thoughts, feelings and ideas as clearly
- as possible
high context culture
- value language as a way to maintain social harmony (discover
- meaning through nonverbal)
principles of effective language
Power in language
- “I” statements
- Choice of words
- Speech rate
Do you speak american?
- Journalist Robert MacNeil travels across the country
- to answer important sociolinguistic questions
- Examines “the state of American English”
- Three parts:
- Up North
- Down South
- Out West
- “…the study of communication systems
- that do not involve words.”
nonverbal with vocal
Tone of voice, loudness and pitch; or sighs or screams
nonverbal with non vocal
Gestures, movement, appearance and facial expression
characteristics of nonverbal
- May be Unintentional
- Multiple Channels or Codes
- Immediate, Continuous, and Natural
- Universal and Cultural
functions of nonverbal
- Emblems (gestures)
- Facial Expression & Eyes
- Physical Appearance
- Spatial Arrangement
how to improve non verbal skills
- Be cautious in interpreting nonverbal messages
- Give proper attention to nonverbal cues
- Become aware of the messages you may be
- inadvertently sending
- Remember that nonverbals you consider to be
- perfectly innocent can be invasive and even
- threatening to others