Human Communication

Card Set Information

Author:
lex_d14
ID:
294673
Filename:
Human Communication
Updated:
2015-02-02 22:35:53
Tags:
Human Communication
Folders:

Description:
Human Communication
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user lex_d14 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What are the four time periods?
    classical, medieval, modern, contemporary
  2. When was the classical period
    500BC- 400 CE
  3. When was the Medieval period?
    400-600
  4. When was the Modern Period?
    1600-1900
  5. When was the contemporary period?
    1900-now
  6. What are the four Idols?
    • Tribe- thinking due to human nature
    • cave-individual prejudices we bring b/c of background
    • Market Place- center of imprecise use of language
    • theater- fallacies tat occur when we accept fashionable ideas uncritically
  7. what are ehos?
    credibility
  8. What are logos?
    logical appeal
  9. what are pathos
    emotional
  10. What are the canons of rhetoric and who created them?
    • Aristotle and Cicero
    • Invention-adapting to audience
    • arrangement-logical organization
    • style-wording
    • memory
    • delivery-appearance
  11. who are the sophists
    professional speech teachers (not respectable), taught tricks of persuasive speaking for court
  12. What Was rhetoric in the Classical period?
    study of communication
  13. What was rhetoric in te Medieval Period?
    secondary to theology
  14. what was rhetoric in the modern period
    public policy
  15. What are the 4 directions of Rhetoric?
    • Classical-recover insight of classics and adapt
    • psychological- how people could influence one another
    • belletristic-focused on writing and speaking art (drama, poetry)
    • elocutionary-elaborate system of instruction to improve speakers verbal and nonverbal presentations
  16. what period where the sophists a part of
    classsical
  17. Who are rhetoricians?
    teach and study rhetoric
  18. who was cicero
    • 1. prominent roman politician 
    • 2.considered to be Rom's finest orator
    • 3.died by opposing Mark Antony
    • 4.delivered many famous speeches
    • 5. wrote extensively on communication theory
  19. Aristotle
    • 1. student of plato
    • 2. attended plato's academy
    • 3. started the Lycum
    • 4. tutor for alexander the great
  20. What is communication??
    • the process of sharing
    • meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues
  21. What constitutes communication?
    • Communication must involve human beings
    •  Communication must involve symbolism
    •  verbal or nonverbal
    •  Communication can be intentional or unintentional
    •  Communication must include a response
    •  direct or indirect
    •  Communication must involve a sender and a
    • receiver
  22. What are the levels of communication?
    •  Intrapersonal Communication
    •  Interpersonal Communication
    •  Small Group Communication
    •  Public Communication
    •  Mass Communication
  23. Misconceptions about communication
    •  Communication does not always require complete
    • understanding
    •  Communication is not always a good thing
    •  No single person or event causes another’s reaction
    •  Communication will not solve all problems
    •  Meanings rest in people, not words
    •  Communication is not simple
    •  More communication is not always better
    •  There should always be an “S” on communication
  24. schemata
    mental guidelines
  25. person prototypes
    idealized representations of a ertain kind of person
  26. personal constructs
    characteristics htat we notice on a daily basis
  27. scripts
    tells us what comes next in a sequence of actions
  28. frame of reference
    • past experiences that affect
    • every aspect of communication and interaction
  29. narratives
    • personal stories we create to make sense
    • of our world
  30. mindless processing
    saving our conscious attention for important situations
  31. mindful processing
    state of alert and lively awareness; we actively think about the world
  32. differences between hearing and listening
    •  Listening is voluntary, while hearing is involuntary
    •  Listening is active
    •  Listening is a learned skill
    •  Listening implies using the message received
    •  Comprehension!
    •  Not everyone has the same experience of hearing and
    • understanding the same message
  33. stages in the listening process
    • attention
    • interpretation
    • evaluation
    • responding
    • storage and retrieval
  34. attention
    • the process of selectively focusing on certain events
    • voluntary/involuntary
    • avoid distractions, determine purpose, right attitude
  35. interpretations
    • assign meaning to symbolic uces
    • perception
  36. evaluation
    • evaluate message quality by listening and thinking critically
    • identify purpose 
    • judge info carefullly 
    • test info
    • delay final eval
  37. responding
    listeners have an obligation to respond
  38. types of listening
    • content oriented
    • people oriented
    • action oriented
    • time oriented
  39. storage and retrieval
    • cannot remembert message= failure
    • false memory-info that is painful or unpleasant can be pushed asside
  40. Why is listening hard?
    •  Lack of effort
    •  Message overload
    •  Rapid thought
    •  Noise
    •  Faulty assumptions
    •  Cultural differences
    •  Media influences
    •  We’d rather be talking!
  41. faulty listening behaviors
    •  Selective listening
    •  Defensive listening
    •  Ambushing
    •  Scriptwriting
    •  Pseudolistening
    •  Insulated listening
    •  Insensitive listening
    •  Stage hogging
  42. differences between written and spoken
    • Less formal than written language
    •  Contains more fragments & contractions
    •  More personal references
    •  (i.e. me, you, we, us)
    •  Repetitive
  43. language
    •  “a rule-governed symbol system that allows its
    • users to generate meaning and, in the process,
    • to define reality.”
  44. subsystems of language
    •  Sound pattern of language: phonology
    •  Study of meaning in a language: semantics
    •  Study of sentence structure: syntactics
    •  Study of how we use language in social contexts: pragmatics
  45. gender
    • Who talks the most?
    •  What do men and women talk about?
    •  Do women and men use different words?
    •  Do men and women structure sentences the
    • same way?
    •  Who controls interaction flows?
    •  Who chooses the topics of talk?
    •  Do women or men tell more jokes?
    •  Are men or women more open?
  46. euphamism
    • a pleasant term substituted for a more direct but
    • potentially less pleasant one
  47. equivocation
    •  a deliberately vague statement that can be interpreted in
    • more than one way
  48. low context cultures
    •  use language to express thoughts, feelings and ideas as clearly
    • as possible
  49. high context culture
    •  value language as a way to maintain social harmony (discover
    • meaning through nonverbal)
  50. principles of effective language
    •  Correctness
    •  Clearness
    •  Appropriateness
    •  Vividness
  51. Power in language
    • “I” statements
    •  Credibility
    •  Status
    •  Accent
    •  Choice of words
    •  Speech rate
  52. Do you speak american?
    •  Journalist Robert MacNeil travels across the country
    • to answer important sociolinguistic questions
    •  Examines “the state of American English”
    •  Three parts:
    •  Up North
    •  Down South
    •  Out West
  53. nonverbal communication
    • “…the study of communication systems
    • that do not involve words.”
  54. nonverbal with vocal
    Tone of voice, loudness and pitch; or sighs or screams
  55. nonverbal with non vocal
    Gestures, movement, appearance and facial expression
  56. characteristics of nonverbal
    • May be Unintentional
    • Multiple Channels or Codes
    • Immediate, Continuous, and Natural
    • Universal and Cultural
  57. functions of nonverbal
    • Repeating
    • Substituting
    • Complementing
    • Accenting
    • Regulating
    • Contradicting
    • Deceiving
  58. nonverbal codes
    • Emblems (gestures)
    • Facial Expression & Eyes
    • microexpressions
    • Voice
    • Haptics
    • Physical Appearance
    • Dress
    • Proxemics
    • Chronemics
    • Territoriality
    • Spatial Arrangement
  59. how to improve non verbal skills
    • Be cautious in interpreting nonverbal messages
    • Give proper attention to nonverbal cues
    • Become aware of the messages you may be
    • inadvertently sending
    • Remember that nonverbals you consider to be
    • perfectly innocent can be invasive and even
    • threatening to others

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview