Card Set Information
What are the four time periods?
classical, medieval, modern, contemporary
When was the classical period
500BC- 400 CE
When was the Medieval period?
When was the Modern Period?
When was the contemporary period?
What are the four Idols?
Tribe- thinking due to human nature
cave-individual prejudices we bring b/c of background
Market Place- center of imprecise use of language
theater- fallacies tat occur when we accept fashionable ideas uncritically
what are ehos?
What are logos?
what are pathos
What are the canons of rhetoric and who created them?
Aristotle and Cicero
Invention-adapting to audience
who are the sophists
professional speech teachers (not respectable), taught tricks of persuasive speaking for court
What Was rhetoric in the Classical period?
study of communication
What was rhetoric in te Medieval Period?
secondary to theology
what was rhetoric in the modern period
What are the 4 directions of Rhetoric?
Classical-recover insight of classics and adapt
psychological- how people could influence one another
belletristic-focused on writing and speaking art (drama, poetry)
elocutionary-elaborate system of instruction to improve speakers verbal and nonverbal presentations
what period where the sophists a part of
Who are rhetoricians?
teach and study rhetoric
who was cicero
1. prominent roman politician
2.considered to be Rom's finest orator
3.died by opposing Mark Antony
4.delivered many famous speeches
5. wrote extensively on communication theory
1. student of plato
2. attended plato's academy
3. started the Lycum
4. tutor for alexander the great
What is communication??
the process of sharing
meaning by sending and receiving symbolic cues
What constitutes communication?
Communication must involve human beings
Communication must involve symbolism
verbal or nonverbal
Communication can be intentional or unintentional
Communication must include a response
direct or indirect
Communication must involve a sender and a
What are the levels of communication?
Small Group Communication
Misconceptions about communication
Communication does not always require complete
Communication is not always a good thing
No single person or event causes another’s reaction
Communication will not solve all problems
Meanings rest in people, not words
Communication is not simple
More communication is not always better
There should always be an “S” on communication
idealized representations of a ertain kind of person
characteristics htat we notice on a daily basis
tells us what comes next in a sequence of actions
frame of reference
past experiences that affect
every aspect of communication and interaction
personal stories we create to make sense
of our world
saving our conscious attention for important situations
state of alert and lively awareness; we actively think about the world
differences between hearing and listening
Listening is voluntary, while hearing is involuntary
Listening is active
Listening is a learned skill
Listening implies using the message received
Not everyone has the same experience of hearing and
understanding the same message
stages in the listening process
storage and retrieval
the process of selectively focusing on certain events
avoid distractions, determine purpose, right attitude
assign meaning to symbolic uces
evaluate message quality by listening and thinking critically
judge info carefullly
delay final eval
listeners have an obligation to respond
types of listening
storage and retrieval
cannot remembert message= failure
false memory-info that is painful or unpleasant can be pushed asside
Why is listening hard?
Lack of effort
We’d rather be talking!
faulty listening behaviors
differences between written and spoken
Less formal than written language
Contains more fragments & contractions
More personal references
(i.e. me, you, we, us)
“a rule-governed symbol system that allows its
users to generate meaning and, in the process,
to define reality.”
subsystems of language
Sound pattern of language
Study of meaning in a language
Study of sentence structure
Study of how we use language in social contexts
Who talks the most?
What do men and women talk about?
Do women and men use different words?
Do men and women structure sentences the
Who controls interaction flows?
Who chooses the topics of talk?
Do women or men tell more jokes?
Are men or women more open?
a pleasant term substituted for a more direct but
potentially less pleasant one
a deliberately vague statement that can be interpreted in
more than one way
low context cultures
use language to express thoughts, feelings and ideas as clearly
high context culture
value language as a way to maintain social harmony (discover
meaning through nonverbal)
principles of effective language
Power in language
Choice of words
Do you speak american?
Journalist Robert MacNeil travels across the country
to answer important sociolinguistic questions
Examines “the state of American English”
“…the study of communication systems
that do not involve words.”
nonverbal with vocal
Tone of voice, loudness and pitch; or sighs or screams
nonverbal with non vocal
Gestures, movement, appearance and facial expression
characteristics of nonverbal
May be Unintentional
Multiple Channels or Codes
Immediate, Continuous, and Natural
Universal and Cultural
functions of nonverbal
Facial Expression & Eyes
how to improve non verbal skills
Be cautious in interpreting nonverbal messages
Give proper attention to nonverbal cues
Become aware of the messages you may be
Remember that nonverbals you consider to be
perfectly innocent can be invasive and even
threatening to others