Mod 4

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Mod 4
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  1. Name the three layers of the skin?
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis (superficial fascia)
  2. superficial region
    Epidermis
  3. middle region
    Dermis
  4. deepest region of skin
    Subcutaneous layer deep to skin (not technically part of skin)
    Mostly adipose tissue
    Hypodermis(superficial fascia)
  5. not technically part of skin
    Hypodermis (superficial fascia)
  6. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    Epidermis
  7. Name the four cells of the epidermis?
    • Keratinocytes
    • Melanocytes
    • Epidermal dendritic (Langerhans) cells 
    • System Tactile (Merkel) cells
  8. produce fibrous protein keratin
    Keratinocytes
  9. 10–25% of cells in lower epidermis

    Produce pigment melanin
    Melanocytes
  10. macrophages that help activate immune system
    Epidermal dendritic (Langerhans)cells
  11. Epidermal dendritic cells are also called?
    Langerhans
  12. touch receptors
    Tactile (Merkel) cells
  13. Tactile cells are also called
    Merkel
  14. Name the five Layers of the Epidermis?
    • 1.Horny layer or stratum corneum
    • 2.Clear layer or stratum lucidum
    • 3.Granular layer or stratum granulosum
    • 4.Prickly layer or stratum spinosum
    • 5.Basal layer or stratum basale
  15. -Thin; three to five cell layers in which the cells flatten
    -Keratohyaline and lamellated granules accumulate
    Stratum granulosum (granular layer)
  16. -In thick skin only (palm, sole)
    -Thin, transparent band superficial to the stratum granulosum
    -A few rows of flat, dead keratinocytes
    Stratum lucidum (clear layer)
  17. -Deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to the dermis
    -Single row of stem cells
    -Also called stratum germinativum: cells undergo rapid division
    -Journey from basal layer to surface (takes 25–45 days)
    Stratum basale (basal layer)
  18. Also called stratum germinativum: cells undergo rapid division
    Stratum basale (basal layer)
  19. -Cells contain a weblike system of intermediate prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes
    -Abundant melanin granules and dendritic cells
    Stratum spinosum (prickly layer)
  20. -20–30 rows of dead, flat, keratinized membranous sacs
    -Three-quarters of the epidermal thicknessÐProtects from abrasion and penetration
    -Waterproofs
    -Barrier against biological, chemical, and physical assaults
    Stratum corneum (horny Layer)
  21. -Strong, flexible connective tissue
    -Cells include fibroblasts, macrophages, and occasionally mast cells and white blood cells
    Dermis
  22. What are the two layers of dermis?
    • Papillary
    • Reticular
  23. -80% of the thickness of dermis
    -Collagen fibers provide strength and resiliency
    -Elastic fibers provide stretch-recoil properties
    Reticular layer
  24. Areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels
    Papillary layer
  25. Dermal papillae contain:
    • Capillary loops
    • Meissner’s corpuscles
    • Free nerve endings
  26. Two different skin markings?
    • Friction Ridges
    • Cleavage Lines
  27. Epidermal ridges lie atop deeper dermal papillary ridges to form _____of fingerprints
    friction ridges
  28. -Collagen fibers arranged
    in bundles form ______

    -Incisions made parallel to cleavage lines heal more readily
    cleavage (tension) lines
  29. Which three pigments contribute to skin color?
    • Melanin
    • Carotene
    • Hemoglobin
  30. The pigment Yellow to reddish-brown to black, responsible for dark skin colors

    ×Produced in melanocytes; migrates to keratinocytes where it forms “pigment shields” for nuclei

    ×Freckles and pigmented moles
    -Local accumulations of melanin
    Melanin
  31. The pigment Yellow to orange, most obvious in the palms and soles
    Carotene
  32. The pigment Responsible for the pinkish hue of skin
    Hemoglobin
  33. Name the four Appendages of the Skin?
    • Sweat glands
    • Oil glands
    • Hairs and hair follicles
    • Nails
  34. Name Two main types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands
    • Eccrine (merocrine)sweat glands
    • Apocrine sweat glands
  35. This sweat gland is abundant on palms, soles, and forehead
    -Sweat: 99% water, NaCl, vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin, metabolic wastes
    -Ducts connect to pores
    -Function in thermoregulation
    Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands
  36. Eccrine sweat glands are also called
    merocrine glands
  37. -This sweat gland is confined to axillary and anogenital areas
    -Sebum: sweat + fatty substances and proteins
    -Ducts connect to hair follicles
    -Functional from puberty onward (as sexual scent glands?)
    Apocrine sweat glands
  38. Two Specialized apocrine glands are
    • Ceruminous glands
    • Mammary glands
  39. _____in external ear canal; secrete cerumen
    Ceruminous glands
  40. what are Sebaceous Glands?
    Oil Glands
  41. -Widely distributed
    -Most develop from hair follicles
    -Become active at puberty
    Sebaceous(Oil) Glands
  42. -Oily holocrine
    secretion
    -Bactericidal
    -Softens hair and skin
    Sebum
  43. name Types of Hair
    • Vellus
    • Terminal
    • Hair Growth
  44. pale, fine body hair of children and adult females
    Vellus
  45. coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp, axillary, and pubic regions (and face and neck of males)
    Terminal
  46. -Growth phase (weeks to years) followed by regressive stage and resting phase (1–3 months)
    -Growth phase varies (6–10 years in scalp, 3–4 months in eyebrows)
    Hair Growth
  47. Scalelike modification of the epidermis on the distal, dorsal surface of fingers and toes
    Nail
  48. Name three types of barriers used for protection in the Integumentary System?
    • Chemical
    • Physical/mechanical barriers
    • Biological barriers
  49. What are the six Functions of the Integumentary System?
    • Protection
    • Body temperature regulation
    • Cutaneous sensations
    • Metabolic functions
    • Blood reservoir
    • Excretion
  50. Which of barriers used for protection in the Integumentary System? pH secretions (acid mantle) and defensins retard bacterial activity
    Chemical
  51. Which of the barriers used for protection in the Integumentary System?

    -Keratin and glycolipids block most water and water- soluble substances

    -Limited penetration of skin by lipid-soluble substances, plant oleoresins (e.g., poison
    ivy), organic solvents, salts of heavy metals, some drugs
    Physical/mechanical barriers
  52. Which of the barriers used for protection in the Integumentary System?

    -Dendritic cells, macrophages, and DNA
    Biological barriers
  53. Which one of the six Functions of the Integumentary System is this?

    -has three types of barriers
    protection
  54. Which one of the six Functions of the Integumentary System is this?



    ~500 ml/day of routine insensible perspiration (at normal body temperature)

    -At elevated temperature, dilation of dermal vessels and increased sweat gland
    activity (sensible perspirations) cool the body
    Body temperature regulation
  55. Which one of the six Functions of the Integumentary System is this?

    -Temperature, touch, and pain
    Cutaneous sensations
  56. Which one of the six Functions of the Integumentary System is this?

    -Synthesis of vitamin D precursor and collagenase
    Metabolic functions
  57. Which one of the six Functions of the Integumentary System is this?

    -up to 5% of body’s blood volume
    Blood reservoir
  58. Which one of the six Functions of the Integumentary System is this?

    -nitrogenous wastes and salt in sweat
    Excretion
  59. Most skin tumors, such as moles , are not cancerous? True or false?
    TRUE!
  60. Skin Cancer
    Two Risk factors?
    • Overexposure to UV radiation
    • Frequent irritation of the skin
  61. What are the Three Types of skin cancer?
    • Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Melanoma
  62. What Type of skin cancer are?

    -Least malignant, most common
    -Stratum basale cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis´
    -Cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases
    Basal Cell Carcinoma
  63. What Type of skin cancer are?

    -Second most common

    -Involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum

    -Most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands

    -Good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removed surgically
    Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  64. What Type of skin cancer are?

    -Most
    dangerous

    -Involves
    melanocytes

    -Highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy

    -Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy
    Melanoma
  65. In Burns Tissue damage inflicted by
    • Heat
    • Electricity
    • Radiation
    • Chemicals (e.g., acids)
  66. True or false? Burns are not classified according to their severity and how deep from the surface the damage goes.
    false
  67. What are the different degrees of burns?
    • First degree
    • Second degree
    • Third degree
  68. What are the two Partial-Thickness
    Burns?
    • First degree
    • Second degree
  69. This burn has

    -Epidermal damage only

    -Localized redness, edema (swelling), and pain
    First degree
  70. This burn has
    -Epidermal and upper dermal damage
    -Blisters appear
    Second degree
  71. This burn has

    -Entire thickness of skin damaged
    -Gray-white,cherry red, or black
    -No initial edema or pain (nerve endings destroyed)
    -Skin grafting usually necessary
    Third degree
  72. Name a Full-Thickness
    Burn?
    Third degree
  73. -Dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, leading to renal shutdown and circulatory shock, are the immediate threat to the life of the person. True of false?
    True
  74. -After the first 24-36 hours have
    passed, the main threat of burn becomes infection to the wound site. True or False?
    True
  75. This is Used to estimate the volume of fluid loss from burns in adults
    Rule of Nines
  76. In the Rule of Nines

    Burn injuries are considered critical if:

    -More than_____ of the body has 2 degree burns
    25%
  77. In the Rule of Nines

    Burn injuries are considered critical if:
    -More than_____ of the body has 3 degree burns
    10%
  78. In the Rule of Nines

    Burn injuries are considered critical if:

    -Face, hands, or feet bear_____ of burns?
    3 degree
  79. In the Rule of Nines

    Burn injuries are considered critical if:

    -_____ and ____ are more at risk because of their impaired immune system.
    Young children & older people
  80. In the Rule of Nines

     What's the degree(%) of the anogenital area?
    1%
  81. In the Rule of Nines 

    What's the degree(%) of the head?
    9%
  82. In the Rule of Nines 
    What's the degree(%) of one of the upper limbs?
    9%
  83. In the Rule of Nines 
    What's the degree(%) of one of the lower limbs?
    18%
  84. In the Rule of Nines 

    What's the degree(%) of the abdominal?
    36%
  85. Hair Functions?
    • Alerting the body to presence of insects on the skin
    • Guarding the scalp against physical trauma, heat loss, and sunlight
  86. Where are some Hair Distributions?
    Entire surface except palms, soles, lips, nipples, and portions of external genitalia
  87. Hair Consists of dead keratinized cells ? True or false
    True.
  88. Hair Contains_____ ; more durable than soft keratin of skin
    hard keratin
  89. Hair pigments?
    melanins (yellow, rust brown, black)
  90. Gray/white hair: ____ melanin production, ____ air bubbles in shaft
    decreased/ increased
  91. Extends from the epidermal surface into dermis
    Hair Follicle
  92. Name four Hair Follicles?
    • Two-layered wall
    • Hair bulb
    • Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus)
    • Arrector pili
  93. Hair Follicle that has:

    outer connective tissue root sheath, inner epithelial root sheath
    Two-layered wall
  94. Hair Follicle that has:

    -expanded deep end
    Hair bulb
  95. Hair Follicle that has:

    -Sensory nerve endings around each hair bulb
     that is Stimulated by bending a hair
    Hair follicle receptor (root hair plexus)
  96. Hair Follicle that has:

    -Smooth
    muscle attached to follicle

    -Responsible
    for “goose bumps”
    Arrector pili
  97. The number one threat from burns is tissue damage. True of false?
    False! Dehydration!
  98. Name the layers of the skin for non-thick skin- from superficial
    to deep.
    Non-thick skin:

    • Conreum
    • granulosum
    • spinosum
    • basale
  99. Name the layers of the skin for thick skin- from superficial to deep.
    Thick Skin:

    • Corneum
    • lucidum
    • granulosum
    • spinosum
    • basale
  100. Which layer of the dermis is closest to the epidermis
    • Papillary layer- makes up about 20% of dermis
    • *reticular layer constitutes about 80% of dermis
  101. This gland is found in the axillary and anogenital areas
    Apocrine Sweat Glands
  102. Nails and Hair are modifications of the hypodermis? True or false
    • False!
    • They are modifications of the epidermis

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