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The innate or adaptive immune response makes vaccines responsive.
Adaptive immune response
What two forms of destroying cells can result in exogenous antigen formation
phagocytosis and degranulation
Which cells of the adaptive immune response of WBC's are the following cells (T cells & B cells): CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, Antibody producing cells.
- T-cells:CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells
- B cells=Antibody producing cells.
____ helps activate both the CD8 T cells mediated response and the B cells adaptive immune system mediated response?
CD4 T cells
MHC1 & MHCII are part of the _____ immune system, and form a bridge to the ____ immune system
MHC I molecules presentation of endogenous antigens to _______ cells triggers the cell mediated adaptive immune response
CD8 positive T
MHC II molecules presentation of exogenous antigens to _______ cells triggers the cell mediated adaptive immune response
MHC I only accepts ________ Ag's carried by APC's to ____ T cells?
Endogenous Ag's, to CD8+ T cells.
MHC II only accepts ________ Ag's carried by APC's to ____ T cells?
Exogenous Ag, CD4+T cell
What's the primary signal for T cell activation
the MHC-AG-TCR interaction
What 2 requirements must be met for a T cell to receive the primary signal to accept a presented Ag from the MHC molecule?
- 1) The Ag matches the T cell receptor
- 2) If it is held by the right MHC molecule.
Which cell will kill your own cells once activated?
CD8+ T cells
That type of destruction do CD8=T cells usually have
The cell targets are usually specific cells, not random ones.
The 2nd signal for T cell activation is
from cytokines produced by innate immune cells.
How do CD4 T cells help?
- activates other lymphocytes:
- -help activate B cells
- -Help activate CD8 T cells
2 things activated CD8 T cells do?
- 1) targeted destruction of infected cells.
- 2) targeted destruction of abnormal cells.
benefits of Memory T cells
-long living, more easily activated, and produce more efficient Effector T cells when activated
Secondary signal in B cell activation
Cytokines primarily produced from CD4 T cells, rather than the innate Immune response.
Primary signals required for the activation of B cells
1) Ag-BCR (Ag is detected directly by B cell receptor).
How are Ag's produced to activate B cells?
Ag's produced by innate immune system response or produced as cellular debris directly from pathogen (degranulation, pathogen debris).
when are cytokines produced
produced by the innate immune response system during injury or infection
a Plasma cell is
a B cell after it's been activated, which produced 5 antibodies (AKA Immunoglobulin Ig).
5 steps of T cell activation
- 1) Naieve T cells
- 2) Infection Ag presentation
- 3) clonal Expansion
- 4) Clearance of Source Ag
- 5) Established memory cells
5 types of Immunoglobulin Ig Ab?
IgA, IgG, IgE, IgD, IgM.
How is IgA transmitted
IgA is a secretory Ab found at mucosal surfaces; can be transmitted through breast ilk from mother to infant.
What do I need to know about the IgG ab
IgG is the most common; can cross the placenta from mother to fetus. IgG=Phagocytosis.
What do I need to know about IgE ab's
IgE is an anaphylactic ab; can bind to Fc receptor on granulocytes and result in allergies. IgE=granules attachment
What does the variable region of the Ab do?
Located at the tip, it determines the Ag specificity by it's shape.
What do Ab's do when they attach to virus?
It binds to the pathogen, and prevents it from binding to other cells for spreading or nutralizes it.
how do IgG Ab's do prevent bacteria and viruses from spreading to other cells?
Phagocytes have IgG Fc receptors, which recognize them and phagocyte Fc, and the cell it's attached to.
1) What immune system is responsible for making Ab's.
2) What do Ab's do to the innate immune system?
- 1) Adaptive immune response.
- 2) enhances the efficiency and specificity of the innate immune response.
Where are IgE Ab Fc receptors found
on Granulocytes, and triggers degranulation
unfortunate complication of degranulation:
- 1) collateral damage to own cells
- 2) Histamines are released
How long from the time of infection does to produce Antibodies Ab?
2 weeks for naive B cells to produce Ab.
How long does it take from the time of infection for memory B cells to be produced?
How do vaccinations trick T and B cells?
It tricks them into producing memory cells, so you have them ready to fight infection.
What immune response does the following summarize:
-physical, mechanical, and Chemical barriers
-phagocytosis and degranulation
innate immune response
What immune response does the following summarize:
-APCs (MHCI/II) take Ag to T cells (CD4/CD8).
-B cells are activated and Antibodies Ab are produced.
-memory T/B cells produced
Adaptive immune response!
How are inactivated Vaccines produced
Growing/culturing the real pathogen and then killing the pathogen. (polio, HepA, influenza.
How are Attenuated Vaccines produced
culturing the real pathogen in non-ideal environments which weakens the pathogen (chickenpox, MMR)
How are Toxoid vaccines produced
by chemically modifying the microbial toxin causing the toxin to become inert (toxoid). (Diphtheria, DTaP, tetanus).
how are subunit/conjgate/Genetically Engineered (GE) produced
by combining species of pathogen with other molecules or organisms (HepB, Pertussis (DTaP), HPV