mb 230 3-3 Adaptive immune response

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mb 230 3-3 Adaptive immune response
2015-02-12 01:41:33
mb 230 Adaptive immune response
mb 230 3-3 Adaptive immune response
mb 230 3-3 Adaptive immune response
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  1. The innate or adaptive immune response makes vaccines responsive.
    Adaptive immune response
  2. What two forms of destroying cells can result in exogenous antigen formation
    phagocytosis and degranulation
  3. Which cells of the adaptive immune response of WBC's are the following cells (T cells & B cells): CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, Antibody producing cells.
    • T-cells:CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells
    • B cells=Antibody producing cells.
  4. ____ helps activate both the CD8 T cells mediated response and the B cells adaptive immune system mediated response?
    CD4 T cells
  5. MHC1 & MHCII are part of the _____ immune system, and form a bridge to the ____ immune system
    Innate, adaptive
  6. MHC I molecules presentation of endogenous antigens to _______ cells triggers the cell mediated adaptive immune response
    CD8 positive T
  7. MHC II molecules presentation of exogenous antigens to _______ cells triggers the cell mediated adaptive immune response
  8. MHC I only accepts ________  Ag's carried by APC's to ____ T cells?
    Endogenous Ag's, to CD8+ T cells.
  9. MHC II only accepts ________  Ag's carried by APC's to ____ T cells?
    Exogenous Ag, CD4+T cell
  10. What's the primary signal for T cell activation
    the MHC-AG-TCR interaction
  11. What 2 requirements must be met for a T cell to receive the primary signal to accept a presented Ag from the MHC molecule?
    • 1) The Ag matches the T cell receptor
    • 2) If it is held by the right MHC molecule.
  12. Which cell will kill your own cells once activated?
    CD8+ T cells
  13. That type of destruction do CD8=T cells usually have
    The cell targets are usually specific cells, not random ones.
  14. The 2nd signal for T cell activation is
    from cytokines produced by innate immune cells.
  15. How do CD4 T cells help?
    • activates other lymphocytes:
    • -help activate B cells
    • -Help activate CD8 T cells
  16. 2 things activated CD8 T cells do?
    • 1) targeted destruction of infected cells.
    • 2) targeted destruction of abnormal cells.
  17. benefits of Memory T cells
    -long living, more easily activated, and produce more efficient Effector T cells when activated
  18. Secondary signal in B cell activation
    Cytokines primarily produced from CD4 T cells, rather than the innate Immune response.
  19. Primary signals required for the activation of B cells
    1) Ag-BCR (Ag is detected directly by B cell receptor).
  20. How are Ag's produced to activate B cells?
    Ag's produced by innate immune system response or produced as cellular debris directly from pathogen (degranulation, pathogen debris).
  21. when are cytokines produced
    produced by the innate immune response system during injury or infection
  22. a Plasma cell is
    a B cell after it's been activated, which produced 5 antibodies (AKA Immunoglobulin Ig).
  23. 5 steps of T cell activation
    • 1) Naieve T cells
    • 2) Infection Ag presentation
    • 3) clonal Expansion
    • 4) Clearance of Source Ag
    • 5) Established memory cells
  24. 5 types of Immunoglobulin Ig Ab?
    IgA, IgG, IgE, IgD, IgM.
  25. How is IgA transmitted
    IgA is a secretory Ab found at mucosal surfaces; can be transmitted through breast ilk from mother to infant.
  26. What do I need to know about the IgG ab
    IgG is the most common; can cross the placenta from mother to fetus. IgG=Phagocytosis.
  27. What do I need to know about IgE ab's
    IgE is an anaphylactic ab; can bind to Fc receptor on granulocytes and result in allergies. IgE=granules attachment
  28. What does the variable region of the Ab do?
    Located at the tip, it determines the Ag specificity by it's shape.
  29. What do Ab's do when they attach to virus?
    It binds to the pathogen, and prevents it from binding to other cells for spreading or nutralizes it.
  30. how do IgG Ab's do prevent bacteria and viruses from spreading to other cells?
    Phagocytes have IgG Fc receptors, which recognize them and phagocyte Fc, and the cell it's attached to.
  31. 1) What immune system is responsible for making Ab's.
    2) What do Ab's do to the innate immune system?
    • 1) Adaptive immune response.
    • 2) enhances the efficiency and specificity of the innate immune response.
  32. Where are IgE Ab Fc receptors found
    on Granulocytes, and triggers degranulation
  33. unfortunate complication of degranulation:
    • 1) collateral damage to own cells
    • 2) Histamines are released
  34. How long from the time of infection does to produce Antibodies Ab?
    2 weeks for naive B cells to produce Ab.
  35. How long does it take from the time of infection for memory B cells to be produced?
    2-3 days.
  36. How do vaccinations trick T and B cells?
    It tricks them into producing memory cells, so you have them ready to fight infection.
  37. What immune response does the following summarize:
    -physical, mechanical, and Chemical barriers
    -phagocytosis and degranulation
    -Ag production
    innate immune response
  38. What immune response does the following summarize:
    -APCs (MHCI/II) take Ag to T cells (CD4/CD8).
    -B cells are activated and Antibodies Ab are produced.
    -memory T/B cells produced
    Adaptive immune response!
  39. How are inactivated Vaccines produced
    Growing/culturing the real pathogen and then killing the pathogen. (polio, HepA, influenza.
  40. How are Attenuated Vaccines produced
    culturing the real pathogen in non-ideal environments which weakens the pathogen (chickenpox, MMR)
  41. How are Toxoid vaccines produced
    by chemically modifying the microbial toxin causing the toxin to become inert (toxoid). (Diphtheria, DTaP, tetanus).
  42. how are subunit/conjgate/Genetically Engineered (GE) produced
    by combining species of pathogen with other molecules or organisms (HepB, Pertussis (DTaP), HPV