chapter5B2.txt

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chapter5B2.txt
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Anatomy Physiology Memmler\'s Human Body Health Disease
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Anatomy & Physiology 1: Memmler's Human Body Health Disease - Chapter 5
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  1. Define Disease
    • Disease is defined as an abnormality of the structure or function of a part, organ, or system.
    • List seven categories of disease
    • The Seven Categories of disease are:Infection, degenerative diseases, nutritional disorders, metabolic disorders, immune disorders, neoplasms, and psychiatric disorders.
  2. List seven predisposing causes of disease
    seven predisposing causes of disease are: Age, gender, heredity, living conditions and habits, emotional disturbance, physical and chemical damage, preexisting illness
  3. Etiology
    is the study of the cause of any disease, or the theory of its origin
  4. is the study of the cause of any disease, or the theory of its origin
    Etiology
  5. Disease terminology: Incidence
    the number of any new disease cases appearing in a particular population over a given time period
  6. Morbidity
    the proportion of a population with a specific disease
  7. the proportion of a population with a specific disease
    Morbidity
  8. the proportion of a population that dies from a given disease
    Mortality
  9. Mortality
    the proportion of a population that dies from a given disease
  10. Diseases are classified based on severity and duration. Name them:
    • - Acute means relatively severe but usually lasts a short time
    • - Chronic disease are less severe but tend to be continuous or reoccurring for long periods
    • - Subacute means that is less severe than acute disease, and also doesn�t last as long as anything chronic
  11. relatively severe but usually lasts a short time
    Acute
  12. disease are less severe but tend to be continuous or reoccurring for long periods
    chronic
  13. less severe than acute disease, and also doesn�t last as long as anything chronic
    Subacute
  14. disease are without a known cause
    idiopathic
  15. diseases results from adverse effects of treatment, including drug treatment and surgery
    Latrogenic
  16. the overall frequency of the disease in any given group. The number of cases in a particular group during a specific period
    Prevalence
  17. A Disease that can be transmitted from one person to another
    communicable
  18. Several ways that diseases can be transmitted are through:
    • -Direct Contact, such as general touching and sexual activity.
    • -Indirect Contact can also transmit microorganisms through touched objects like tables and doorknobs.
    • -Vector transmission is transmission of a disease causing organism from one insect or animal to another .
    • -The atmosphere can also carry disease causing microorganisms through the air
  19. List four types of organisms studied in microbiology
    • a. Bacteria are simple single cell organisms. They can grown in many environments and lack a true nucleus and most organelles
    • b. Viruses are composed of nucleic acids and protein and can only reproduce inside a living cell- obligate intracellular parasites.
    • c. Fungi are very simple, non green, plant like organisms. Single cells forms are yeasts; filamentous forms are molds
    • d. Algae are simple aquatic plants and are not parasitic
  20. Bacteria is responsible for :
    Lyme disease, Gonorrhea, tetnus, anthrax, cholera, and strep throat
  21. Viruses are responsible for:
    Rubella, Hepatitis B & C, Measles, HIV & AIDS, and Chicken Pox
  22. Some Fungal infections are:
    ringworm, athlete�s foot, and yeast infections
  23. Some protozoan infections are:
    Malaria, anopheles, and can be a problem with, round worms, hook worms and flat worms
  24. Parasites are categorise as what microbe
    Protozoan
  25. Define normal flora
    Normal Flora are microorganisms that grow on or within our bodies. They are not harmful to us.
  26. What is the value of normal flora
    they crowd out and prevent the growth of other harmful varieties of organisms.
  27. Describe the three types of bacteria according to shape.
    • a. Cocci are round bacteria and form into chains like a string of beads
    • b. Bacilli are straight slender rods, although some are cigar shaped with rounded ends
    • c. Curved rods are rods with a slight curve in them. There are three types of these:
    • i. Vibros � look like a comma
    • ii. Spirilla �long wavelike bacteria that look like a cork screw
    • iii. Spirochetes � look like Spirilla but can wave or twist
  28. Disease is believed to play a part in at least how much of all human illnesses
    50%
  29. Involve degeneration (breaking down) of tissues in any system of the body
    Degenerative Diseases
  30. List causes of degenerative diseases
    • � Hereditary
    • � Wear and tear
    • � Infection
    • � No known causes
  31. List Nutritional Disorders
  32. � Deficiencies
    • � Scurvy � Vitamin C
    • � Rickets - Calcium
    • - Excesses
    • � Alcohol
    • � Caloric intake
  33. Metabolic Disorders
    • � A disturbance in the buildup, breakdown, or excretion of substances
    • � Causes
    • � Disruption in the reactions of cellular metabolism
    • � Hormone imbalance regulate many metabolic activities
    • � Hereditary errors of metabolism
  34. Immune Disorders
    • � Immune deficiencies
    • � The decreased ability of the body to fight infection and disease.
    • � Hypersensitivity � overactive immune system
    • � Allergies
    • � Autoimmune disorders
    • � Causes
    • � Genetic
    • � Infection
  35. Neoplasms
    • � An abnormal and uncontrolled growth of tissues
    • � Benign
    • � Metastatic
  36. Psychiatric Disorders
    � A health condition that changes a person�s thinking, feelings, or behavior (or all three) and that causes the person distress and difficulty in functioning
  37. List some Predisposing Factors of disease
    • � May not cause a disease, but does increase the probability of a person becoming ill
    • � Age
    • � Gender
    • � Heredity
    • � Living conditions & habits
    • � Emotional disturbance
    • � Physical & chemical damage � Injuries & chemical exposure
    • � Preexisting illness
  38. Epidemic
    many people from a certain region acquire a certain disease at the same time
  39. Endemic
    a disease found to a lesser extent, but continuously in a particular region
  40. Pandemic
    a disease prevalent throughout the world
  41. CDC � Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
    • � Established in 1946
    • � Works to prevent
    • � Spread of infectious disease
    • � Control & prevention of chronic disease
    • � Protect the public from environmental hazards
  42. Treatment of Disease
    • � Medical process
    • � History, including signs and symptoms
    • � Sign � objective evidence
    • � Symptoms � subjective evidence
    • � Syndrome � a characteristic set of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease; PMS, AIDS
    • � Diagnosis � a conclusion as to the nature of the illness
    • � Prognosis � prediction of probable outcome of disease
    • � Therapy � course of treatment
  43. Methods of disease prevention or treatment that can be used along with or instead of allopathic medical practices
    Complementary & Alternative Medicine
  44. List several forms of Alternative Medicine
    • � Naturopathy
    • � Chiropractic
    • � Acupuncture
    • � Biofeedback
    • � Herbal medicine
  45. Disease Prevention
    • Allopathic medicine�s major focus is on treating patients who currently have a disease
    • � Wellness movement focuses on preventing the occurrence of disease by promoting health
    • � Health � an optimal physical, mental and emotional state of being, not merely the absence of disease
    • � Health-promoting practices
    • � Massage
    • � Diet
    • � Exercise
    • � Stress management
  46. Infectious Disease
    • Invasion of the body by disease-producing microorganisms
    • � Microorganisms �
    • � Aka microbes, germs
    • � A tiny living thing too small to be seen by the naked eye
    • � Most are harmless, many are beneficial, a few cause illness (are pathogenic)
    • � Parasite � a living organism that lives on or in a living host at the host�s expense
    • � Pathogen � disease-producing organism
  47. List the types of infection
    • Infection � pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms
    • � Local � infection restricted to a small area
    • � Systemic � infection throughout the whole body
    • � Opportunistic infection � an infection that takes hold because the body has been weakened by disease or injury
  48. List the modes of transmission Direct Contact
    • � Touching
    • � Sexual activity
    • � Indirect Contact
    • � Touched objects
    • � Vector � an insect or animal that transmits a pathogen from one host to another (mosquito)
    • � Atmosphere
  49. List the portal of entry
    • � Skin
    • � Respiratory tract
    • � Digestive system
    • � Urinary system
    • � Reproductive system
  50. The Common Cold
    • 1 billion Americans �catch� a cold every year
    • � Leading cause of doctor visits & missed days of work & school
    • � Caused by over 200 different types of viruses
    • � One sneeze can send hundreds of thousands of particles several feet, where they live for 3-6 hours
    • � To prevent
    • � Avoid close contact
    • � Wash hands
    • � Do not touch your face
    • � Clean surfaces frequently
  51. Microbiology
    • Microbiology � the study of organisms
    • � Bacteria � single-celled organisms which grow in many environments
    • � Viruses- composed of nucleic acids & protein; can only multiply inside of living cells
    • � Fungi � plantlike organisms
    • � Single celled � yeasts
    • � Filamentous - molds
    • � Protozoa � single-celled animals
    • � Aka parasites
    • � Includes worms
  52. Microorganisms
    • Most are harmless to humans and are essential to all of life on earth
    • � Normal flora � population of microorganisms that normally grow on or within our bodies
    • � Beneficial
    • � If normal flora are destroyed it can cause overgrowth of normally harmless bacteria, rendering them pathogenic
  53. Bacteria
    • Single celled organisms
    • One of the most primitive forms of life on earth
    • � Do not have a true nucleus
    • � Lack most organelles
    • � Classification
  54. � Aerobic
    � require oxygen to grow
  55. � Anaerobic
    � grow in the absence of oxygen
  56. � Facultative anaerobes � use oxygen if present but are also able to grow without oxygen � e. coli
    • � Endospores � resistant forms of bacteria that can tolerate long periods of dryness or other adverse conditions
    • � Resistant to ordinary methods of disinfection
    • � Particularly dangerous � tetanus, botulism, anthrax
  57. How to Bacteria Move?
    • �Flagella
    • �Pili � short �hairs� that help bacteria to
    • glide across solid surfaces & anchor it
    • to surfaces
  58. More bactreia info
    • Largest group of pathogens to humans
    • � Can divide every 20 minutes or every 24 hours
    • � Cause damage to humans in 2 ways
    • � Produce toxins
    • � Growing in human tissues
  59. Obligate Intracellular Parasites
    • Bacteria that are much smaller than normal
    • Also include viruses, which are not bacteria
    • � They only grow within the cells of their hosts
    • � Chlamydia
    • � Ricksettia
    • � Transmitted through insect bites
    • � Rocky Mountain spotted fever
  60. Viruses
    • Extremely small in comparison to bacteria
    • Have some characteristics of living matter but not all Contain genetic material & are able to reproduce
    • � Contain only DNA OR RNA
    • � Generally made of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat
    • � Are not cellular
    • � Do not have enzyme systems
    • � Can only grow within a host�s cell
  61. Classifying Viruses
    • Classified according to type of DNA they have Cause many illnesses
    • � Common cold
    • � Poliomyelitis
    • � Hepatitis
    • � Chicken pox
    • � AIDS
  62. Other Agents Smaller than Viruses
    • Prions � made solely of proteins
    • � Slow growing and hard to destroy
    • � Mad cow disease
    • � Viroids
    • � Composed solely of RNA with no protein coat
    • � So far have only been discovered to cause plant diseases
  63. Fungi
    • � Types
    • � Yeast � single celled
    • � Molds � long & filamentous
    • � Simple plant-like organisms
    • � Do not contain chlorophyll
    • � Grow in dark, damp places
    • � Very few cause diseases
  64. Mycotic (Fungal) Infections
    • � Can affect skin
    • � Ringworm � tinea corporis or capitis
    • � Athlete�s Foot
    • � Can affect those with compromised immune
    • systems
    • � Candidiasis
  65. Protozoa
    • � Single-celled animal-like organisms
    • � Amebas � a �blob� that can move
    • � Ciliates � tiny hairs propel this organism
    • � Flagellates � a tail propels this organism
    • � Sporozoa � cannot propel themselves
    • � Obligate parasites, unable to grow outside host
    • � Carried by mosquitos
    • � malaria
  66. Parasitic Worms (Helminths)
    • � Roundworms
    • � Ascaris � intestinal; hard to control & eliminate
    • � Pinworm � intestinal; hard to control & eliminate
    • � Hookworms � intestinal; suck blood & cause anemia; larvae enter body through foot
    • � Trichinea � live in muscles of animals & people;
    • enter body through undercooked meat
    • � Filaria � live in lymphatic system
    • � Flatworms
    • � Tapeworms � can be 50 feet long in intestines,
    • spread through undercooked meat
    • � Flukes � can infect many body parts
  67. Microbial Control
    • Infectious diseases are increasing
    • � Increased population, travel, food processing
    • � Public health measures help control microbes
    • � Sewage/garbage disposal
    • � Water purification
    • � Prevention of food contamination
    • � Milk pasteurization
  68. Aseptic Techniques & Methods
    • � Sterilization � kills EVERY living microorganism
    • on an object
    • � Disinfection � kills all pathogens (except
    • spores) but does not necessarily kill harmless
    • microbes
    • � Antisepsis � pathogens not necessarily killed
    • but prevented from multiplying
  69. Universal Precautions to Control Infection
    • � Healthcare workers MUST use barriers for any contact with moist substances, non-intact skin, & mucous membranes �REGARDLESS of whether or not blood is visible & REGARDLESS of a patient�s diagnosis
    • � Soiled linen and trash are treated as contaminated
    • � Needles are not recapped after blood draws
    • � Handwashing � goal of 100% compliance
  70. Handwashing
    • � The single most important measure to prevent the spread of infection in ALL settings
    • � Gloves are not a substitute for handwashing
  71. Antimicrobial Agents
    • � Antibiotics
    • � Penicillin
    • � Danger of opportunistic infections developing due to loss of normal bacteria
    • � Danger of resistant strains of pathogens developing
    • � Antiviral agents � very few and they have a limited range of effectiveness
    • � Viruses mutate rapidly to become resistant
    • � Antiviral agents are often used in combinations

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