ARTIC Test #1

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ARTIC Test #1
2015-02-04 19:41:49
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  1. Articulation
    modification of the vocal tract by partially or completely interrupting the voiced or unvoiced air stream to produce distinctly different speech sounds
  2. Phonology
    system of language concerned with the rules for the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech sound patterns
  3. Phoneme
    class of phonetically similar sounds considered equivalent in a particular language
  4. Allophone
    an acceptable variation in the production of a phoneme
  5. Minimal Pairs
    • Two words that differ in one phoneme production 
    • ex)bat vs. bag
  6. Cluster/Blends
    A combination of 2 or more consonants that release or arrest a syllable
  7. Phonotatics
    works to explain what sounds can and cannot be combined with each other in our language
  8. Speech as a Secondary Function
    in times of danger, biological processes take precedence over speech
  9. 5 Speech Processes
    • Articulation 
    • Respiration 
    • Phonation 
    • Resonance 
    • Cerebration
  10. Articulation Speech and Biological Functions
    • Biological: mastication and deglutition 
    • Speech: produce the phonemes of the language
    • Needed for all speech sounds
  11. Respiration Speech and Biological Functions
    • Process of breathing; inhale=replenish oxygen; exhale=remove carbon dioxide 
    • Speech: provide and direct air through larynx and oral and nasal cavities; provide energy source for speech 
    • Biological: sustain life by bringing in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide
    • Needed for all speech sounds
  12. Phonation Speech and Biological Functions
    • The process by which laryngeal sound is produced due to vibration of vocal folds activated by outgoing airstream 
    • Speech: provide an acoustic sour of all oral communication except unvoiced consonants 
    • Biological: provide mechanical barrier between trachea and pharynx to prevent entrance of foreign matter; provide protective cough reflex to expel intruding matter; allow for buildup of sub glottal pressure for strenuous events
    • Only needed for voiced sounds
  13. Resonance Speech and Biological Functions
    • process of modifying the voiced airstream by amplifying and damping certain frequency components as it passes through various structures 
    • Speech: prevent or allow the voiced airstream to pass through the nasal passages 
    • Biological: mastication and deglutition
    • Only needed for some speech sounds
  14. Cerebration Speech and Biological Functions
    • Biological: controls the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems; Coordinates all muscle movements in proper sequence and time with the desired result
    • Speech: Tells articulators when, where, and how to move
    • Needed for all speech sounds
  15. Cerebrum
    • Receives and transforms sensory-motor experiences into symbols for oral communication 
    • Divided into left and right hemispheres that are connected by the corpus callosum 
    • Wrapped by 3 meningeal linings for protection 
    • Contains 4 Lobes: frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal
  16. Frontal Lobe
    • Contains Broca's Area (Anterior Communication Center)
    • Speech production movements are planned here
    • Formulates expressive language
  17. Temporal Lobe
    • Resposible for auditory perception 
    • Wernicke's area (posterior communication center)
    • Receives, assimilates, and interprets phonemes, words, and other oral communication symbols
  18. Parietal Lobe
    • Receptive area for general sensory stimuli that are not covered by other lobes
    • Responsible for sensory control of various parts of the body
    • Not really responsible for oral communication
  19. Occipital Lobe
    Responsible for visual stimulation and visual processing
  20. Phonological Processes
    • systematic change of sounds to make complex articulations more simple
    • they are innate 
    • Over time they will be suppressed; usually by age 4
  21. Coarticulation
    • Influence that sounds have on each other in connected speech 
    • Retentive: retaining an aspect of articulation when a sound does not need it 
    • Anticipatory: adjusting before the sound is produced
  22. Parts of a Syllable
    • Peak: most prominent part of syllable; will be a vowel; every syllable must have one 
    • Onset (Releasor): anything that precedes the peak
    • Coda (Arrestor): any element that follows the peak
  23. Open Syllables
    Syllable that lacks a coda
  24. Closed (Checked) Syllable
    Syllable that has a coda
  25. Assimilation
    Adaptive articulatory changes in which one sound becomes similar/identical to neighboring sound segment
  26. Rhyme
    • Occurs when the peak and coda of two words are the same 
    • ex) will; bill; etc.
  27. Juncture
    • The way that syllable interact and join in connected speech 
    • Closed Juncture: typical transition/blending when speaking at a moderate pace; consonant that ends one syllable is used to begin the next syllable 
    • Open Juncture: State each word deliberately and separately
  28. 8 Cognate Pairs
    • p/b
    • t/d
    • k/g
    • f/v
    • θ/ð
    • s/z
    • ∫/ʒ
    • t∫/dʒ
  29. Free Variation
    • Adding aspiration/plosive due to stress of a word
    • Speaker's choice 
    • Allophones
  30. Complementary Distribution
    • No changing
    • The sound that is created can only be placed in that situation and not substituted for an allophone 
    • ex) You cannot substitute the t in pat for the t in stop
  31. Inventory of Sounds
    A list of speech sounds which the client can articulate within normal limits (correctly)
  32. Broca's Area
    • Located in the Frontal Lobe
    • Responsible for the planning of speech production
  33. Wernicke's Area
    • Located in the Temporal Lobe 
    • Responsible for receiving, assimilating, and interpreting phonemes, words, or other oral communication symbols
  34. V. - Trigeminal
    • sensory and motor 
    • Sensory: receives sensations from deep structures of face, mouth, mandible, anterior 2/3 of tongue, cheeks, hard palate, lips
    • Motor: sends motor impulses to muscles of chewing and velum 
    • Damage: effects tactile sensation of anterior 2/3 of tongue, paralysis of chewing muscles that control jaw movement, articulation, and resonance problems;common VPI
  35. VII. - Facial Nerve
    • Sensory and Motor
    • Sensory: receives sensations from velum and proprioceptive sensations from facial muscles
    • Motor: provides motor impulses to stapedius muscle and to all superficial muscles of facial expression 
    • Damage: facial movements affecting non verbal aspects of communication ex) twitching of the face, drooling
  36. IIX. - Acoustic/Auditory
    • Sensory 
    • Sensory: two parts supply auditory (cochlea) and balance (vestibule), mechanisms of inner ear
    • Damage: auditory acuity, deafness, auditory hallucinations, tinnitus, vertigo, affects development and maintenance of speech
  37. IX. - Glossopharyngeal
    • Sensory and Motor 
    • Sensory: receives taste sensations from posterior 1/3 of tongue and sensations from pharynx, velum, tonsils, eustachian tube, and tympanic cavity 
    • Motor: supplies motor impulses to pharyngeal and velar muscles and posterior 1/3 of tongue 
    • Damage: hypernasality and nasal airflow associated with VPI problems with articulation involving back of tongue, taste, and swallowing problems
  38. X. - Vagus
    • Sensory and Motor 
    • Sensory: receives sensations from EAC and various structures of pharynx and larynx 
    • Motor: provides motor impulses to pharynx, larynx, and base of tongue 
    • Damage: loss of voice or deviations in voice due to vocal fold paralysis
  39. XI. - Accessory
    • Motor 
    • Motor: supplies motor impulses to muscles of larynx, pharynx, velum, neck; assists other nerves 
    • Damage: phonation and resonance, head rotation, shrugging shoulders
  40. XII. - Hypoglossal
    • Sensory and Motor 
    • Sensory: receives proprioceptive sensations from tongue which is considered the most important feedback for maintaining articulation
    • Motor: provides motor impulses to nearly all tongue muscles 
    • Damage: result in articulation problems ranging from mild to dysarthria to complete anarthria (inability to move tongue for articulation, chewing, and swallowing) due to tongue paresis or paralysis, upon protrusion tongue deviates to affected side
  41. Central Nervous System
    Contains cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata)
  42. Cerebellum
    • Located at the base of the occipital lobe 
    • Responsible for coordination and equilibrium 
    • Controls muscular activity and orients body in space
  43. Brainstem
    • Crucial link between spinal cord and cerebrum
    • Contains cranial nerve origins 
    • Controls vital functions
  44. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Carries impulses from the CNS to structures and form structures to CNS
    • Consists of 12 paired cranial nerves, 31 spinal nerves and many autonomic nerves and pathways
    • Autonomic Nervous System: help maintain a constant internal body environment; helps prepare body for impending danger and for more localized reactions; affects speech in the area of suprasegmentals
  45. Phonetic Errors
    • An articulation error
    • Error in making sounds such as manner, place, and voicing
  46. Phonemic Errors
    • An phonological error
    • Not using a sound correctly
  47. Phoneme
    Family of phonetically similar sounds made in a similar way
  48. Speech Sound
    Actual productions of the phonemes
  49. Phonemes
    • Language unit 
    • With changes in phonemes come changes in meaning
  50. Vowel Classification
    • Open Vocal Tract 
    • Open sounds
    • All are voiced
    • Acoustically intense
  51. Consonant Classification
    • significant constriction in the oral and/or pharyngeal cavities during their production 
    • Constricted sounds 
    • Voiced or unvoiced
    • Acoustically less intense than vowels