Radiation Protection Biological aspects of radiation

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
294801
Filename:
Radiation Protection Biological aspects of radiation
Updated:
2015-02-03 21:09:54
Tags:
Radiation Protection Biological aspects radiation
Folders:

Description:
Radiation Protection Biological aspects of radiation
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. The interaction between x-ray photons and matter pictured in Figure A is associated with

    Figure A.















    1. high-energy x-ray photons.
    2. ionization.
    3. characteristic radiation.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    D
  2. The skin response to radiation exposure, which appears as reddening of the irradiated skin area, is known as




     
    dry desquamation 



     
    moist desquamation 



     
    erythema 



     
    epilation
    C
  3. The dose–response curve that appears to be valid for genetic and some somatic effects is the

    1. linear

    2. nonlinear

    3. nonthreshold






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  4. Late effects of radiation, whose incidence is dose related and for which there is no threshold dose, are referred to as




     
    nonstochastic 



     
    stochastic 



     
    chromosomal aberration 



     
    hematologic depression
    B
  5. The skin response to radiation exposure that appears as hair loss is known as




     
    dry desquamation 



     
    moist desquamation 



     
    erythema 



     
    epilation
    D
  6. Examples of stochastic effects of radiation exposure include

    1. radiation-induced malignancy

    2. genetic effects

    3. leukemia






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  7. What is used to account for the differences in tissue sensitivity to ionizing radiation when determining effective dose E?

    1. Tissue weighting factors (W )

    2. Radiation weighting factors (W )

    3. Absorbed dose






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  8. The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a long period of time, the effect




     
    will be greater than if it is delivered all at one time 



     
    will be less than if it is delivered all at one time 



     
    has no relation to how it is delivered in time 



     
    solely depends on the radiation quality
    B
  9. Which of the following cell types has the greatest radiosensitivity?




     
    Nerve cells 



     
    Muscle cells 



     
    Spermatids 



     
    Lymphocytes
    D
  10. Late radiation-induced somatic effects include

    1. thyroid cancers

    2. cataractogenesis

    3. skin cancers






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  11. Which of the following factors can affect the amount or the nature of radiation damage to biologic tissue?

    1. Radiation quality

    2. Absorbed dose

    3. Size of irradiated area






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  12. The effects of radiation on biologic material depend on several factors. If a large quantity of radiation is delivered to a body over a short period of time, the effect




     
    will be greater than if it were delivered in increments 



     
    will be less than if it were delivered in increments 



     
    has no relation to how it is delivered in time 



     
    solely depends on the radiation quality
    A
  13. What is the relationship between LET and RBE?




     
    As LET increases, RBE increases. 



     
    As LET increases, RBE decreases. 



     
    As LET decreases, RBE increases. 



     
    There is no direct relationship between LET and RBE.
    A
  14. Which interaction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule involves formation of a free radical?




     
    Direct effect 



     
    Indirect effect 



     
    Target effect 



     
    Random effect
    B
  15. The principal late effects of ionizing radiation on humans include

    1. local tissue damage

    2. genetic effects

    3. malignant disease






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  16. Which of the following dose-response curve characteristics represent genetic and some somatic responses to radiation?















    1. Linear
    2. Nonthreshold
    3. Sigmoidal






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  17. How do fractionation and protraction affect radiation dose effects?

    1. They reduce the effect of radiation exposure.

    2. They permit cellular repair.

    3. They allow tissue recovery.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  18. Which type of dose–response relationship represents radiation-induced leukemia and genetic effects?




     
    Linear, threshold 



     
    Nonlinear, threshold 



     
    Linear, nonthreshold 



     
    Nonlinear, nonthreshold
    C
  19. Factors that contribute to the amount of scattered radiation produced include

    1. radiation quality

    2. field size

    3. grid ratio






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  20. The x-ray interaction with matter that is responsible for the majority of scattered radiation reaching the image receptor (IR) is




     
    the photoelectric effect 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    classical scatter 



     
    Thompson scatter
    B
  21. Which of the following radiation-induced conditions is most likely to have thelongest latent period?




     
    Leukemia 



     
    Temporary infertility 



     
    Erythema 



     
    Acute radiation lethality
    A
  22. Which of the following tissues or organs is the most radiosensitive?




     
    Rectum 



     
    Esophagus 



     
    Small bowel 



     
    Central nervous system (CNS)
    C
  23. In the production of Bremsstrahlung radiation




     
    the incident photon ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron 



     
    the incident photon is deflected, with resulting energy loss 



     
    the incident electron ejects an inner-shell tungsten electron 



     
    the incident electron is deflected, with resulting energy loss
    D
  24. What is (are) the major effect(s) of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) irradiation?

    1. Malignant disease

    2. Chromosome aberration

    3. Cell death






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  25. Which of the following cell types has the greatest radiosensitivity in the adult human?




     
    Nerve cells 



     
    Muscle cells 



     
    Spermatids 



     
    Lymphocytes
    D
  26. Which of the following interactions between x-ray photons and matter ismost responsible for patient dose?




     
    The photoelectric effect 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    Classic scatter 



     
    Thompson scatter
    A
  27. Which of the following statements regarding the human gonadal cells is (are) true?

    1. The female oogonia reproduce only during fetal life.

    2. The male spermatogonia reproduce continuously.

    3. Both male and female stem cells reproduce only during fetal life.






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    3 only
    C
  28. What is the term used to describe x-ray photon interaction with matter and the transference of part of the photon's energy to matter?




     
    Absorption 



     
    Scattering 



     
    Attenuation 



     
    Divergence
    B
  29. Which of the following contributes most to patient dose?




     
    The photoelectric effect 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    Classical scatter 



     
    Thompson scatter
    BA
  30. Diagnostic x-radiation may be correctly described as




     
    low energy, low LET 



     
    low energy, high LET 



     
    high energy, low LET 



     
    high energy, high LET
    A
  31. Which of the following expresses the gonadal dose that, if received by every member of the population, would be expected to produce the same total genetic effect on that population as the actual doses received by each of the individuals?




     
    Genetically significant dose 



     
    Somatically significant dose 



     
    Maximum permissible dose 



     
    Lethal dose
    A
  32. Which of the following radiation exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose-response relationship?















    1. Skin erythema
    2. Hematologic depression
    3. Lethality






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  33. Which of the following types of adult tissue is (are) comparatively insensitive to effects of ionizing radiation?

    1. Epithelial tissue

    2. Nerve tissue

    3. Muscle tissue






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  34. Which of the following types of radiation is (are) considered electromagnetic?

    1. X-ray

    2. Gamma

    3. Beta






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  35. All the following radiation-exposure responses exhibit a nonlinear threshold dose–response relationship except




     
    skin erythema 



     
    hematologic depression 



     
    radiation lethality 



     
    leukemia
    D
  36. If 600 rad or more is received as a whole-body dose in a short period of time, certain symptoms will occur; these are referred to as




     
    short-term effects. 



     
    long-term effects. 



     
    lethal dose. 



     
    acute radiation syndrome.
    D
  37. Major effect(s) of irradiation of macromolecules include(s)

    1. point lesions

    2. cross-linking

    3. main-chain scission






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  38. Somatic effects resulting from radiation exposure can

    1. have possible consequences on the exposed individual

    2. have possible consequences on future generations

    3. cause temporary infertility






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  39. Biologic material is least sensitive to irradiation under which of the following conditions?




     
    Anoxic 



     
    Hypoxic 



     
    Oxygenated 



     
    Hyperbaric
    A
  40. The interaction between ionizing radiation and the target molecule that ismost likely to occur is the




     
    direct effect 



     
    indirect effect 



     
    target effect 



     
    random effect
    B
  41. The term used to describe the gradual decrease in exposure rate as an x-ray beam passes through matter is




     
    attenuation 



     
    absorption 



     
    scattered radiation 



     
    secondary radiation
    A
  42. Which of the following anomalies is (are) possible if an exposure dose of 40 rad (400 mGy) were delivered to a pregnant uterus in the third week of pregnancy?

    1. Skeletal anomaly

    2. Organ anomaly

    3. Neurologic anomaly






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  43. Biologic material is most sensitive to radiation exposure under which of the following conditions?




     
    Anoxic 



     
    Hypoxic 



     
    Oxygenated 



     
    Deoxygenated
    C
  44. Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the dose–response curve shown in Figure 3–6?

    1. The quantity of radiation is directly related to the dose received.

    2. No threshold is required for effects to occur.

    3. A minimum amount of radiation is required for manifestation of effects.










     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    C
  45. Possible responses to irradiation in utero include

    1. spontaneous abortion

    2. congenital anomalies

    3. childhood malignancies






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3 only
    D
  46. The late effects of radiation are considered to

    1. have no threshold dose.

    2. be directly related to dose.

    3. occur within hours of exposure.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  47. Which acute radiation syndrome requires the largest exposure before any effects become apparent?




     
    Hematopoietic 



     
    Gastrointestinal 



     
    Central nervous system (CNS) 



     
    Skeletal
    C
  48. Which of the dose–response curve(s) shown in Figure 3–2 illustrate(s) a linear threshold response to radiation exposure?

    1. Dose–response curve A

    2. Dose–response curve B

    3. Dose–response curve C










     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    B

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview