rAD pROTECTIONMinimizing patient exposure

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rAD pROTECTIONMinimizing patient exposure
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2015-02-03 22:36:54
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Minimizing patient exposure
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Minimizing patient exposure
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  1. Which of the following projections is most likely to deliver the largest dose to the ovaries?




     
    AP lumbar spine, 7 × 17 in. cassette, 80 kVp 



     
    AP lumbar spine, 14 × 17 in. cassette, 80 kVp 



     
    AP abdomen, 80 kVp 



     
    AP abdomen, 70 kVp
    B
  2. Which of the following will reduce patient dose during fluoroscopy?















    1. Decreasing the source-skin distance (SSD)
    2. Using 2.5 mm Al filtration
    3. Restricting tabletop intensity to less than 10 R/min






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    C
  3. Which of the following is (are) likely to improve image quality and decrease patient dose?

    1. Beam restriction

    2. Low kilovolt and high milliampere- second factors

    3. Grids






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  4. If a patient received 0.9 rad during a 3-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?




     
    3 mrad/min 



     
    30 mrad/min 



     
    300 mrad/min 



     
    3,000 mrad/min
    C
  5. The interaction illustrated in Figure 3–5

    1. can pose a safety hazard to personnel

    2. can have a negative impact on image quality

    3. occurs with low-energy incident photons










     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  6. Which of the following result(s) from restriction of the x-ray beam?

    1. Less scattered radiation production

    2. Less patient hazard

    3. Less radiographic contrast






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  7. Classify the following tissues in order of increasing radiosensitivity

    1. Liver cells

    2. Intestinal crypt cells

    3. Muscle cells






     
    1, 3, 2 



     
    2, 3, 1 



     
    2, 1, 3 



     
    3, 1, 2
    D
  8. Which one of the following is (are) used to control the production of scattered radiation?

    1. Collimators

    2. Optimal kV

    3. Use of grids






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  9. It is essential to question female patients of childbearing age regarding the

    1. date of their last menstrual period

    2. possibility of their being pregnant

    3. number of x-ray examinations they have had in the past 12 months






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    B
  10. If the exposure rate to an individual standing 2.0 m from a source of radiation is 15 R/min, what will be the dose received after 2 minutes at a distance of 5 m from the source?




     
    1.2 R 



     
    2.4 R 



     
    4.8 R 



     
    9.6 R
    C
  11. From which of the following primary beam sizes, all other factors remaining constant, will the greatest radiation exposure result?




     
    8 × 10 



     
    10 × 12 



     
    11 × 14 



     
    14 × 17
    d
  12. Patient dose increases as fluoroscopic




     
    FOV increases 



     
    FOV decreases 



     
    FSS increases 



     
    FSS decreases
    B
  13. If a patient received 2000 mrad during a 10-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?




     
    0.2 rad/min 



     
    2.0 rad/min 



     
    5 rad/min 



     
    200 rad/min
    A
  14. Which of the following methods can be used to reduce radiation exposure to a recently fertilized ovum?

    1. Elective booking

    2. Patient questionnaire

    3. The 10-day rule






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    D
  15. The interaction between x-ray photons and tissue that is responsible for radiographic contrast but that also contributes significantly to patient dose is




     
    the photoelectric effect 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    coherent scatter 



     
    pair production
    A
  16. What is the approximate entrance skin exposure (ESE) for the average anteroposterior (AP) supine abdomen radiograph?




     
    300 rad 



     
    300 mrad 



     
    35 rad 



     
    35 mrad
    B
  17. A fluoroscopic examination requires 3 minutes of exposure on time. If the exposure rate for the examination is 250 mR/hr, what is the approximate exposure for the three minute procedure?




     
    83.3 R 



     
    83.3 mR 



     
    12.5 R 



     
    12.5 mR
    D
  18. An increase of 1.0 mm added aluminum filtration of the x-ray beam would have which of the following effects?

    1. Increase in average energy of the beam

    2. Increase in patient skin dose

    3. Increase in milliroentgen output






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    A
  19. For radiographic examinations of the skull, it is generally preferred that the skull be examined in the




     
    AP projection 



     
    PA projection 



     
    recumbent position 



     
    supine position
    •  
    • PA projection
  20. Which of the following most effectively minimizes radiation exposure to the patient?




     
    Small focal spot 



     
    Low-ratio grids 



     
    Increased SID 



     
    High-speed intensifying screens
    •  
    •  
    • High-speed intensifying screens
  21. he focal spot-to-table distance, in mobile fluoroscopy, must be




     
    a minimum of 15 inches. 



     
    a maximum of 15 inches. 



     
    a minimum of 12 inches. 



     
    a maximum of 12 inches.
    •  
    •  
    • a minimum of 12 inches.
  22. Filters used in radiographic x-ray tubes generally are composed of




     
    aluminum 



     
    copper 



     
    tin 



     
    lead
    •  
    • aluminum
  23. Which of the following terms is correctly used to describe x-ray beam quality?




     
    mA 



     
    HVL 



     
    Intensity 



     
    Dose rate
    •  
    • HVL
  24. Patient exposure can be minimized by using which of the following?















    1. Accurate positioning
    2. High-kV, low-mAs factors
    3. Rare earth screens






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  25. If a patient received 1,400 mrad during a 7-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?




     
    200 rad/min 



     
    5 rad/min 



     
    2.0 rad/min 



     
    0.2 rad/min
    D
  26. All the following have an effect on patient dose except




     
    kilovoltage 



     
    milliampere-seconds 



     
    focal spot size 



     
    inherent filtration
    •  
    • focal spot size
  27. Patient dose during fluoroscopy is affected by the

    1. distance between the patient and the input phosphor

    2. amount of magnification

    3. tissue density






     
    1 only 



     
    3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  28. Aluminum filtration has its greatest effect on




     
    low-energy x-ray photons 



     
    high-energy x-ray photons 



     
    low-energy scattered photons 



     
    high-energy scattered photons
    •  
    •  
    • low-energy x-ray photons
  29. Which of the following is (are) associated with Compton scattering?















    1. High-energy incident photons
    2. Outer-shell electrons
    3. Characteristic radiation






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only
  30. Which of the following would be the safest interval of time for a fertile woman to undergo abdominal radiography without significant concern for irradiating a recently fertilized ovum?




     
    The first 10 days following the cessation of menstruation 



     
    The first 10 days following the onset of menstruation 



     
    The 10 days preceding the onset of menstruation 



     
    About 14 days before menstruation
    •  
    • The first 10 days following the onset of menstruation
  31. What is the approximate ESE for the average upright PA chest radiograph using 115 kVp and a grid?




     
    20 rad 



     
    20 mrad 



     
    200 rad 



     
    200 mrad
    •  
    •  
    • 20 mrad
  32. The advantages of beam restriction include which of the following?

    1. Less scattered radiation is produced.

    2. Less biologic material is irradiated.

    3. Less total filtration will be necessary.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only
  33. The SSD in mobile fluoroscopy must be




     
    a minimum of 15 in. 



     
    a maximum of 15 in. 



     
    a minimum of 12 in. 



     
    a maximum of 12 in.
    •  
    •  
    • a minimum of 12 in.
  34. Types of structural damage to a DNA molecule by ionizing radiation include which of the following?

    1. single-side-rail scission

    2. double-side-rail scission

    3. cross-linking






     
    1 only 



     
    2 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  35. Which of the following functions to protect the x-ray tube and the patient from overexposure in the event that the phototimer fails to terminate an exposure?




     
    Circuit breaker 



     
    Fuse 



     
    Backup timer 



     
    Rheostat
    •  
    • Backup timer
  36. Inherent and added filtration in the x-ray tube functions to




     
    reduce patient skin dose. 



     
    shorten the scale of contrast. 



     
    reduce scattered radiation. 



     
    soften the x-ray beam.
    •  
    •  
    • reduce patient skin dose.
  37. Which of the following would be most likely to cause the greatest skin dose (ESE)?




     
    Short SID 



     
    High kilovoltage 



     
    Increased filtration 



     
    Increased milliamperage
    •  
    • Short SID
  38. Which of the following groups of exposure factors would deliver the lowestpatient dose?




     
    2.5 mAs, 100 kVp, 400-speed screens 



     
    10 mAs, 90 kVp, 200-speed screens 



     
    10 mAs, 70 kVp, 800-speed screens 



     
    10 mAs, 80 kVp, 400-speed screens
    •  
    •  
    • 2.5 mAs, 100 kVp, 400-speed screens
  39. When an image intensifier's magnification mode is used,















    1. output screen gain is increased.
    2. resolution increases.
    3. patient dose increases.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • 2 and 3 only
  40. What quantity of radiation exposure to the reproductive organs is required to cause temporary infertility?




     
    100 rad 



     
    200 rad 



     
    300 rad 



     
    400 rad
    •  
    •  
    • 200 rad
  41. Which of the following groups of exposure factors will deliver the least patient dose?




     
    300 mA, 250 ms, 70 kVp 



     
    300 mA, 125 ms, 80 kVp 



     
    400 mA, 90 ms, 80 kVp 



     
    600 mA, 30 ms, 90 kVp
    •  
    •  
    • 600 mA, 30 ms, 90 kVp
  42. The primary function of filtration is to reduce




     
    patient skin dose 



     
    operator dose 



     
    image noise 



     
    scattered radiation
    •  
    • patient skin dose
  43. If a patient received 2000 mrad during a 10-minute fluoroscopic examination, what was the dose rate?




     
    0.02 rad/min 



     
    0.2 rad/min 



     
    2.0 rad/min 



     
    20 rad/min
    •  
    • 0.2 rad/min
  44. How many HVLs are required to reduce the intensity of a beam of monoenergetic photons to less than 15% of its original value?




     




     




     




     
    5
    •  
    • 3
  45. How does filtration affect the primary beam?




     
    It increases the average energy of the primary beam. 



     
    It decreases the average energy of the primary beam. 



     
    It makes the primary beam more penetrating. 



     
    It increases the intensity of the primary beam.
    •  
    •  
    • It increases the average energy of the primary beam.
  46. It is necessary to question a female patient of childbearing age regarding her

    1. date of last menstrual period

    2. possibility of being pregnant

    3. age at her first pregnancy






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only
    •  
    •  
    • 1 and 2 only
  47. Which of the following will increase patient dose during fluoroscopy?

    1. Decreasing the SSD

    2. Using 2.5 mm Al filtration

    3. Restricting tabletop intensity to less than 10 R/min






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    •  
    • 1 only
  48. Which of the following is most likely to result in the greatest increase in patient exposure?




     
    Changing from a 400 speed system to a 200 speed system 



     
    Increasing kVp 15% and cutting mAs in half 



     
    Using two tomographic cuts instead of two plain images 



     
    From nongrid technique to 8:1 grid
    •  
    •  
    • From nongrid technique to 8:1 grid
  49. Which of the following groups of exposure factors will deliver the leastamount of exposure to the patient?




     
    400 mA, 0.25 second, 100 kVp 



     
    600 mA, 0.33 second, 90 kVp 



     
    800 mA, 0.5 second, 80 kVp 



     
    800 mA, 1.0 second, 70 kVp
    •  
    •  
    • 400 mA, 0.25 second, 100 kVp
  50. The measure of the rate at which energy is transferred from ionizing radiation to soft tissue is termed




     
    the characteristic effect 



     
    Compton scatter 



     
    linear energy transfer 



     
    the photoelectric effect
    •  
    • linear energy transfer
  51. The most efficient type of male gonadal shielding for use during fluoroscopy is




     
    flat contact 



     
    shaped contact (contour) 



     
    shadow 



     
    cylindrical
    •  
    •  
    • shaped contact (contour)
  52. A test radiograph like the one pictured in Figure A would be made by the radiation safety officer (RSO) or equipment service person and is used to evaluate

    Figure A. Courtesy of Stamford Hospital, Department of Radiology





     
    focal spot size. 



     
    linearity. 



     
    collimator alignment. 



     
    spatial resolution.
    •  
    •  
    • collimator alignment.
  53. What is the approximate entrance skin exposure (ESE) for the average AP supine lumbar spine radiograph?




     
    350 rad 



     
    350 mrad 



     
    35 rad 



     
    35 mrad
    •  
    •  
    • 350 mrad
  54. With milliamperes (mA) increased to maintain output intensity, how is the ESE affected as the source-to-skin distance (SSD) is increased?




     
    The ESE increases. 



     
    The ESE decreases. 



     
    The ESE remains unchanged. 



     
    ESE is unrelated to SSD.
    •  
    •  
    • The ESE decreases.
  55. Which of the following is most likely to permit the greatest decrease in patient exposure?




     
    Changing from a 200-speed system to a 400-speed system 



     
    Increasing kilovoltage by 15% and cutting the milliampere-seconds value in half 



     
    Changing collimation from 10 × 12 to 14 × 17 



     
    Changing from an 8:1 grid technique to nongrid
    •  
    •  
    • Changing from an 8:1 grid technique to nongrid
  56. Moving the image intensifier closer to the patient during traditional fluoroscopy

    1. decreases the SID

    2. decreases patient dose

    3. improves image quality






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  57. Radiation safety requirements for fluoroscopic equipment include the following:















    1. SSD at least 38 cm on stationary (fixed) equipment.
    2. SSD at least 30 cm on mobile equipment.
    3. high level/boost mode must have continuous audible signal.






     
    1 only 



     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  58. If the exposure rate to an individual standing 4.0 m from a source of radiation is 10 mR/h, what will be the dose received after 20 minutes at a distance of 6 m from the source?




     
    22.5 mR 



     
    7.5 mR 



     
    4.44 mR 



     
    1.48 mR
    •  
    •  
    • 1.48 mR
  59. When the collimated field must extend past the edge of the body, allowing primary radiation to strike the tabletop, as in a lateral lumbar spine radiograph, what may be done to prevent excessive radiographic density owing to undercutting?




     
    Reduce the milliampere-seconds. 



     
    Reduce the kilovoltage. 



     
    Use a shorter SID. 



     
    Use lead rubber to absorb tabletop primary radiation.
    •  
    •  
    • Use lead rubber to absorb tabletop primary radiation.
  60. Which of the following is (are) important for patient protection during fluoroscopic procedures?















    1. Intermittent fluoroscopy
    2. Fluoroscopic field size
    3. Focus-to-table distance






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3
  61. A minimum total amount of aluminum filtration (inherent plus added) of 2.5 mm is required in equipment operated




     
    above 50 kVp 



     
    above 60 kVp 



     
    above 70 kVp 



     
    above 80 kVp
    •  
    •  
    • above 70 kVp
  62. The primary function of filtration is to reduce




     
    patient skin dose. 



     
    operator dose. 



     
    image noise. 



     
    scattered radiation.
    •  
    •  
    • patient skin dose.
  63. Which of the following safeguards is (are) taken to prevent inadvertent irradiation in early pregnancy?

    1. Patient postings

    2. Patient questionnaire

    3. Elective booking






     
    1 and 2 only 



     
    1 and 3 only 



     
    2 and 3 only 



     
    1, 2, and 3
    •  
    • 1, 2, and 3

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