Ch. 4 Physical Growth and Health Related Behaviors in adolescents

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speedy1joker
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294881
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Ch. 4 Physical Growth and Health Related Behaviors in adolescents
Updated:
2015-03-07 18:31:04
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Physical Growth Health Behaviors Adolescents
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Adolescent Psychology
Description:
The process of physical growth and maturation in adolescents
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  1. What are endocrine glands?
    structures of the body that produce hormones
  2. What are hormones?
    biochemical substances secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands that act as an internal communication system that tells different cells what to do
  3. What is the hypothalamus?
    a small area of the brain that controls motivation, emotion, pleasure, and pain in the body; that is, it controls eating, drinking, hormonal production, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation, and sexual response and behavior
  4. What is the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)?
    a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that controls the production and release of FSH and LH from the pituitary
  5. What is the pituitary gland?
    master gland of the body located at the base of the brain
  6. What are the gonadotropic hormones?
    hormones that are secreted by the pituitary and that influence the gonads, or sex glands
  7. What is the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)?
    a pituitary hormone that stimulates the maturation of the follicles and ova in the ovaries and of the sperm in the testes
  8. What is the luteinizing hormone (LH)?
    a pituitary hormone that stimulates the development of the ovum and estrogen and progesteron in females and of sperm and testosterone in males
  9. What is the human growth hormone (HGH)?
    a pituitary hormone that regulates body growth
  10. What are gonads?
    the sex glands: testes and ovaries
  11. What are ovaries?
    female gonads, or sex glands, that secrete estrogen and progesterone and produce mature egg cells
  12. What are estrogens?
    feminizing hormones produced by the ovaries and, to some extent, by the adrenal glands
  13. What is progesterone?
    a female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary
  14. What is corpus luteum?
    a yellow body that grows from the ruptured follicle of the ovary and becomes an endocrine gland that secretes progesterone
  15. What are testes?
    the male gonads that produce sperm and male sex hormones
  16. What are androgens?
    a class of masculinizing sex hormones produced by the testes and, to a lesser extent, by the adrenals
  17. What is testosterone?
    a masculinizing sex hormone produced by the testes and, to a lesser extent, by the adrenals
  18. What are the adrenal glands?
    ductless glands, located just above the kidneys, that secrete androgens and estrogens in both men and women, in addition to the glands' secretion of adrenaline
  19. What is spermatogenesis?
    the process by which sperm are developed
  20. What is inhibin?
    a hormone produced in the testes to regulate FSH secretion and sperm production
  21. What are sertoli cells?
    cells in the testes that produce the hormone inhibin
  22. What is the scrotum?
    the pouch of skin containing the testes
  23. What is the epididymis?
    a system of ducts, running from the testes to the vas deferens, in which sperm mature and are stored
  24. What are vas deferens?
    the tubes running from the epididymis to the urethra that carry semen and sperm to the ejaculatory duct
  25. What are seminal vesicles?
    twin glands that secrete fluid into the vas deferens to enhance sperm viability
  26. What is the prostate gland?
    gland that secretes a portion of the seminal fluid
  27. What is the urethra?
    the tube carrying the urine from the bladder to the outside; in males, it also carries the semen to the outside
  28. What is the penis?
    the male organ for coitus and urination
  29. What are anabolic steroids?
    the masculinizing hormone testosterone taken by athletes to build muscle mass
  30. What are Cowper's glands?
    small twin glands that secrete a fluid to neutralize the acid environment of the urethra
  31. What are nocturnal emissions?
    male ejaculation during sleep
  32. What is a semenarche?
    a recently coined term for a boy's first ejaculation; derived from the term menarche
  33. What is the vulva?
    collective term referring to the external genitalia of the female
  34. What is the vestibule?
    the opening cleft region enclosed by the labia minora
  35. What is the hymen?
    the tissue partly covering the vaginal opening
  36. What are the Bartholin's glands?
    glands on either side of the vaginal opening that secrete fluid during sexual arousal
  37. What is the vagina?
    the canal from the cervix to the vulva that receives the penis during intercourse and acts as the birth canal through which the baby passes to the outside
  38. What is the labia majora?
    major or large lips of tissue on either side of the vaginal opening
  39. What is the labia minora?
    smaller lips or tissue on either side of the vagina
  40. What is the clitoris?
    a small shaft containing erectile tissue, located above the vagina and urethral openings, that is highly responsive to sexual stimulation
  41. What is the mons veneris?
    mound of flesh (literally "mound of Venus") in the female located above the vagina, over which pubic hair grows
  42. What is the uterus?
    the womb in which the baby grows and develops
  43. What are the fallopian tubes?
    tubes that transport the ova from the ovaries to the uterus
  44. What is the menarche?
    first menstruation
  45. What is anovulatory?
    without ovulation
  46. What is prostaglandins?
    hormones that cause smooth muscle contractions and contribute to dysmenorrhea and menhorrhagia
  47. What is antiprostaglandins?
    drugs that destroy prostaglandins and can reduce menstrual distress
  48. What is osteoporosis?
    a condition in which the bones become brittle due to calcium loss
  49. What are secondary sexual characteristics?
    features not directly related to reproduction that distinguish male from female bodies
  50. What is leptin?
    a hormone that helps trigger puberty
  51. What is gynecomastia?
    a phenomenon experienced by some young male adolescents in which their breasts temporarily swell as they enter puberty
  52. What is the secular trend?
    the trend to mature sexually at earlier ages
  53. What is ectomorph?
    tall, slender body build
  54. What is endomorph?
    short, heavy body build
  55. What is mesomorph?
    medium, athletic body build
  56. What is mortality?
    the probability of dying
  57. What is obesity?
    overweight; excessively fat
  58. What is the metabolic rate?
    the rate at which the body utilizes food and oxygen
  59. What is melatonin?
    the hormone that the brain produces to induce sleep
  60. What is acne?
    pimples on the skin caused by overactive sebaceous glands
  61. What are merocrine glands?
    sweat glands distributed over the entire body
  62. What are apocrine glands?
    sweat glands located primarily in the armpits and groin whose secretions cause body odor
  63. What are sebaceous glands?
    oil-producing skin glands whose secretions can cause acne if the glands' pores become blocked
  64. What are papules?
    tender; raised red bumps that are precursors to pimples
  65. What are pustules?
    the medical term for pimples
  66. What are cysts?
    large, deep pimples that can cause scarring

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