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What type of enzymes digest fats?
Lipase enzyme hydrolyze fatty acids from the glycerol backbone
Where does triglyceride digestion begin?
In the mouth via lingual lipase produced in the salivary glands.
What does stomach do in lipid digestion?
Gastric lipase produced by the chief cells in gastric pits remove fatty acids from triglycerides. Gastric churning helps break up large fat globules.
What is emulsification and where does it happen?
Emulsification is the process of breaking up large fat globules into tiny droplets called micelles. This occurs in the small intestine.
What are the emulsifying agents of bile?
- bile acids
What are the two primary bile salts? From what and where are they synthesized?
- chenodeoxycholic acid
- cholic acid
- They are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol
What does emulsification do for pancreatic lipase?
When emulsification makes micelles, it gives pancreatic lipase access to the remaining triglycerides in the ingested fat, converting them to monoglycerides and fatty acids.
trace the path of short chain fatty acids from the brush border
short chain fatty acids > passive diffusion across mucosal membrane > across basolateral membrane > blood supply > liver
trace the path of long chain fatty acids, monoglycerides, and micelles
passive diffusion across mucosal membrane > endoplasmic reticulum of enterocyte by fatty acid binding protein > converted back to triglycerides > packaged into chylomicrons > Golgi > exocytosis into a lymphatic vessel > slow delivery of chylomicrons to blood
What are chylomicrons?
made of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein. The phospholipid heads allow chylomicron to be soluble in water
What are apolipoproteins?
proteins in chylomicrons that interact with other molecules to get it out into the blood; docking proteins