BIBC 120 fiber
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What is fiber?
plant material that cannot be digested
What are soluble fibers?
Fibers that can be broken down by the gut microbiota
What are two types of insoluble fiber?
Cellulose (glucose with β-1,4 linkages) and hemicellulose
What are three types of soluble fiber?
β-glucans, pectin, and gums
What are the benefits of fiber?
- soluble fiber increases viscosity of GI tract contents
- insoluble fiber adds bulk to feces, stimulating peristalsis and speeding movement through colon
- slows gastric emptying and increases time for nutrient absorption in the small intestine
- stimulates growth of colon microbiota
What are the microbiota?
collection of bacterial species inhabiting the colon
What is the microbiome?
Collection of genes from microbiota
How are sterile infant colons colonized?
from the environment, mostly Bifidobacterium species
At what age is adult microbiota established?
What type of metabolism do most microbiota show?
What is one type of faculative anaerobe?
What is produced during bacterial fermentation?
What are the three SCFAs?
butyrate, propionate, acetate
What do SCFAs do in the GI tract?
regulate immune response, which in essence, regulates inflammation
What is the consequence of too little immune response?
infection by pathogenic bacteria
What is the consequence of too much immune response?
inflammatory disease of intestine
What did the Atarashi experiment show?
Collection of microbiota was inoculated in the sterile colon of a mouse. This resulted in more Tregs in intestinal lining which provided resistance to inflammatory colitis.
What did the Trompette experiment show?
Control mouse was fed 4% diet while another mouse was fed a diet of <0.3% fiber. Control developed a more diverse microbiota and resulted in much less inflammation. The low-fiber diet mouse had a less diverse microbiota and significantly greater inflammation in lungs.
What are probiotics?
Taking in live bacterial cultures in food or dietary supplements
What are prebiotics?
Foods or supplements that promote the growth of beneficial microbiota.
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