Surgery Dr Q: Respiration Part 2
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Chemorecpectors are stimulated by (2 things)
- 1) Lack of O2
- 2) Increase in CO2
Pulmonary stimuli located in the bronchi and lungs are called what?
How do stretch receptors work?
When over stretched or under inflated they transmit signals through the Vagus nerve to the Central Respiratory Center
Initiated by receptors in the bronchi.
Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex
Initiated by receptors in the alveoli
Hering-Breuer Deflation Reflex
Hering-Breuer Inflation reflex stimulate receptors and passage of impulses via Vagus nerve to the central respiratory center and cause what?
Termination of inhalation
Hering-Breuer Deflation reflex stimulate receptors and passage of impulses via Vagus nerve to the central respiratory center and cause what?
Protective reflex that is stimulated by irritation of foreign matter in the trachea or bronchi, consist of a sudden forceful expiration of air
Moist coughs that help an animal clear mucus and other matter from the lower respiratory passages
Other pulmonary reflexes
- 1) Cough
- 2) Sneeze
- 3) Yawn
- 4) Sigh
- 5) Hiccups
Sequence of events with a cough
- 1) Liter of air is inspired in the dog.
- 2) Epiglottis closes and the vocal fold shuts tightly to entrap the air in the lungs.
- 3) Abdominal muscles contract and push against the diaphragm.
- 4) Vocal fold and epiglottis opens widely so that air under pressure explodes outwards.
Irritation originates in the nasal passages
Irritants in the trachea/bronchi result in afferent impulses passing from the respiratory passages through what nerve and to what part of the brain?
Vagus nerve to the medulla
With a sneeze a afferent impulse passes via what nerve and to what part of the brain?
Trigeminal (5th) nerve to the medulla
During a sneeze what is depressed?
Uvula (soft palate)
Slow deep breath taken through a wide-open mouth
Yawn may be stimulated by
- 1.) Slight decrease in the oxygen level of the blood
- 2.) Boredom, drowsiness, or fatigue.
Slightly deeper than normal breath, not accompanied by a wide-open mouth
Sigh may be caused by
Mild corrective action when the level of oxygen in the blood gets a little low or the carbon dioxide level gets a little high
Spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm accompanied by sudden closure of the glottis and epiglottis
Hiccups can be caused by
- 1.) nerve irritation
- 2.) indigestion
- 3.) central nervous system damage
State of decreased oxygen availability
Reduction in O2 over extended period of time requires a
Slow calculating change in respiration
Immediate response to hypoxia
- 1) Unconsciousness
- 2) Increased respiration
- 3) Elevated pulse
- 4) Increase in cardiac output
- 5) Vomiting and nausea
- 6) Reduced RBC
- 7) Dilated pupils
Chronic response to hypoxia
- 1) No real noted effect or dramatic change in the coronary and cerebral vessels
- 2) Fall in the Pulse Rate and Pressure
- 3)Slow decrease in the cardiac output
Disorders of the pleural cavity
- 4)Neoplastic Effusion
When air enters the pleural cavity this condition is known as..
2 types of pneumothorax
Open and closed
Condition caused by communication from inside the thorax and the environment. I.e. penetrating object
What happens during a paradoxical movement?
- 1. Air drawn into the intact lung comes first from the collapsed lung
- 2. The from the exterior, the collapsed lung becomes smaller on inspiration and enlarges on expiration.
- 3. Air expired from the intact lung goes first to the collapsed lung
- 4. Then to the exterior
- The major problem in Paradoxical Respiration is the useless pendulous air between the two lungs
Condition caused by no communication (no open wound) from the inside to the outside
Closed pneumothorax (AKA Spontaneous pneumothorax)
Collapsed lung becomes smaller on inspiration and enlarges on expiration
Pus in the thorax from foreign bodies or puncture wounds through the chest wall. The most common foreign body is the grass awn
Chyle fluid originates from the thoracic duct, which carries triglyceride-rich fluid from the intestinal lymphatics and empties into the venous system in the anterior thorax (azygous vein)
Results from mediastinal lymphoma
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