what are the temps for heat?
contraindications for ultrasound
precautions for ultrasound
what are some uses for heat?
decreased joint stiffness
what is conduction?
heat transferred by direct and stationary contact. Heat is conducted from material with higher temperature to a material with a lower temp.
what is convection?
heat transfer that occurs as result of direct contact between a circulating medium and another material of a different temperature. The thermal agent is in motion so new parts of the agent come in contact with body part; whirlpool, fluidotherapy.
what is conversion?
transfer of heat when nonthermal energy is absorbed into tissue and transformed into heat. Mechanical, electrical, or chemical; diathermy, ultrasound
what is radiation?
direct transfer of heat from radiation source of higher temerture ot one with lower temperature without need for medium or contact; infrared lamp
what are some of the effects of heat?
neuromusclular- change in nerve conduction velocity rate
metabolic-increased metabolic rate and oxygen uptake
small, unmyelinated fibers that transmit slow (1.0-4.0m/sec). They transmit sensations described as dull.
what areas of the body would you treat with a 3 MHz?
What intensity would that be?
thin, superfical areas that are less than 2cm deep.
what are areas of the body you would treat with a 1 MHz?
What intensity would that be?
thicker areas, 2cm+
how are the affects of thermal and non-thermal ultrasound different?
Thermal is prior to stretching and to reduce pain and it is done in a contineous cycle. Non-thermal is more to promote healing by sending pulsed sound waves into the deep tissue.
physical agents can include:
what are the general precautions and contraindications?
pacemaker or other implanted electrical device
impaired sensation or mentation
what is the main role of agents used in rehab?
that they are used in conjunction or in preparation of ther ex functional training and manual mobilizations.
How does heat affect pain?
modify pain transmission or perception or by changing underlying process causing pain.
acute: control pain and inflammation
chronic: promotion of function and improvement of coping skills
what are the three stages of healing?
acute inflammation: 1-6 days
proliferative: day 3- 20- wound contracture
maturation: day 9- 12-18mths (depends on tissue)
what is a keloid scar?
an abnormal scar where collagen production exceeds lysis and extends beyond boundaries and damages healthy tissue.
what are some factors that can affect healing?
what are the 2 most common reasons to use cold therapy?
to control pain and inflammation
what is the hemodynamic effect of cold?
hunting response; cyclic vasoconstriction and vasodilation
what are the neuromuscular effects of cold?
decreases nerve conduction velocity and increases pain threshold.
what are some of the uses for cryotherapy?
modulation of spasticity
symptom management of MS
facilitation-not commonly used though
what are some of the different types of cryotherapy?
what are the contrandications for cold?
over regenrating peripheral nerves
circulatory compromise or PVD
what are the precautions for cold?
over superficial main branch of nerve
over open wound
what are the different sensations they will feel while you apply the cold therapy?
intense cold for first 3 minutes
aching/buring sensation for 4-7 minutes
anesthesia for 8-15 minutes
numbness form 15-30 minutes
you have a patient that you have to monitor for ulcers. what are some questions you would ask them?
ares with lack of sensation
areas of pain
location of current or previous ulcer
fragile skin, easy bruising
medications or conditions putting them at higher risk for skin breakdown.
what are the 4 stages of acute inflammation?
what is the rule of nines chart?
anatomical and graphical tool that divides the TBSA into segements that are multiples of 9% or 18% Both arms would have to be burned for it to be considered 9%. if only one arm was burned it would be 4.5%.
what are the three different degrees of burns?
1st degree- superficial
2nd degree- partial thickness
3rd degree- full thickness
what is wound exudate?
draining; fluid passes throught the wals of vessels into adjacent tisses or spaces to help deposit fibrin and leukocytes.
what are the different types of exudate?
serous- normal in healthy wounds
sanguineous-may indicate new vessel growth or damage to vessel.
serosangineous-can be normal
seropurulent- warns of impending infection
purulent- may smell and indicate infection
what is the red-yellow-black system?
red- protect the wound, maintain moist environment.
yellow- debride necrotic tissue, absorb drainage
black- debride necrotic tissue
what are the different ways of debridement?
sharp- with scaple, scissors, and tweezers
enzymatic-sprinkle packet of enzymes
autolytic- cover it and the wound will eat its self
wet-to-dry- apply new wet bandage everyday and allow to dry overnight.