Plant Biology Test 1

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tresa
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294921
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Plant Biology Test 1
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2015-05-05 20:34:17
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Tresa
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Plant Biology: algae and bryophytes
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  1. Heterotrophic
    • an organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic carbon for growth
    • animals
  2. autotroph
    • an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions.
    • plants
  3. which came first heterotroph or autotroph?
    • heterotroph (aquatic)
    • autotrophs come later

    all would be classified as either archaea or eubacteria
  4. what was needed for terrestrial life
    • Only possible after photosynthesis
    • produces excess O2
  5. how are organisms organized
    to reflect "true" evolutionary history (phylogeny)
  6. taxonomy... what is the most inclusive group?
    domain
  7. taxonomy... what is the least inclusive group?
    species
  8. what does the binomial system contain
    genus + specific epithet
  9. homologous traits
    due to shared ancestry

    ex birds and reptiles have scales
  10. polyphyletic
    includes strangers
  11. paraphyletic
    oops we forgot "x"
  12. analogous traits
    dolphins and fish have fins but aren't related
  13. monophyly
    when all orgs are correctly classified
  14. 3 domains
    • eukarya 
    • archaea
    • eubacteria
  15. kingdoms w/in eukarya
    • plante (paraphyletic)
    • fungi (paraphyletic)
    • animalia (monophyletic)
    • protists (paraphyletic)
  16. Rhodophyta
    • primarily multicellular
    • tropical/marine 
    • chlorophyll and phycobillins in chloroplasts
    • no flagellated cells at any point in life cycle
  17. rhodophyta life cycle: gametophytes are n or 2n
    n, haploid
  18. rhodophyta life cycle: female gametophyte produces
    carpogonium w/ egg
  19. rhodophyta life cycle: fertilized egg develops into
    carposporophyte (diploid)
  20. rhodophyta life cycle: released carpospores develop into
    diploid tetrasporophyte
  21. rhodophyta life cycle: tetrasporophyte produces
    haploid tetraspores
  22. rhodophyta life cycle: released tetraspores develop into
    haploid gametophytes
  23. Chlorophyta
    • green algae
    • chlorophylls a and b
    • starch stored in chloroplasts
    • cell walls made of cellulose
  24. Chlorophyceae
    • chlorophylls a and b in chloroplasts
    • starch stored in chloroplasts
    • cell wall made of cellulose
  25. Ulvophyceae
    • primarily marine
    • few celled to filamentous

    Alternation of generations:

    • 1.    sporophyte: diploid
    • sporangia: contain haploid spores

    • 2.    gametophyte: haploid
    • gametangia
    • gametes
  26. Charophyceae
    • filamentous to parenchymatous  
    • some flagellated, others not  
    • haploid throughout most of life
    • diploid zygote develops attached to female gametophyte   
    • This is the group thought to lead to plants
  27. Plant adaptations for land
    • cuticle
    • stomata
    • thickened cell walls
    • protected gametes
  28. common characteristics of land plants
    • Sexual reproduction oogamous
    • Chlorophylls a and b and carotenoid pigments in chloroplasts 
    • Starch deposited in chloroplasts
    • Cellulose makes up cell walls
    • Fossils date to 430 million years ago (Silurianperiod)
    • Sporophyte, at least intially, dependent on gametophyte
  29. Hepatophyta
    • Characteristics: liverworts  
    • thallus: only slightly differentiated tissues  
    • Gametophyte dominant phase of life cycle


    Sexual reproduction:

    • antheridiophore - antheridium: sperm
    • archegoniophore - archegonium: egg

    diploid zygote - sporophyte: contains haploid spores
  30. Bryophyta
    • Characteristics: mosses
    • typical of moist habitats 
    • can withstand complete dessication

    • Gametophyte dominant phase of life 
    • -leafy gametophyte: rhizoids, prophylls


    Sexual reproduction

    • antheridia
    • 1.    splash cups
    • 2.    jacket cells
    • 3.    sperm

    • archegonia
    • 1.    neck cells
    • 2.    venter: egg, zygote

    • sporophyte
    • 1.    foot
    • 2.    seta
    • 3.    capsule: calyptra, operculum, peristome, spores
  31. Life cycle of red algae
  32. Polysiphonia
  33. carposporophyte
  34. tetrasporophyte
    • polysimphonia
    • male gametophyte
    • polysimphonia
    • female gametophyte
  35. Chlorophyta
  36. Chlorophyceae
  37. Chlamydomonas
  38. volvox
  39. Ulvophyceae
  40. Spirogyra
  41. Cosmarium
  42. What are the Chara sex organs?
    • antheridia - male
    • oogoia - female
  43. liverwort thallus
    • gemma cup
    • used for asexual reproduction
    • antherdiophore, m
    • liverwort
    • liverwort
    • archegoniophore
  44. moss male gametophyte
    • moss female gaemtophyte
    • archegonia
  45. first recognizable organisms were ___ and today would either be classified as members of eubacteria or archaea
    heterotrophic
  46. ___ is the group of green algae that may have given rise to true plants
    charophyceae
  47. male moss plants
    • produce antheridia
    • are haploid
    • are gametophytes
  48. archegonium
    part of the f gametophyte of mosses

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