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3 types of destructive immune responses
- 1) autoimmunity
- 2) hypersensitivity
- 3) Immunodeficiency
Activation of self-reactive T and B cells which result in tissue damage.
Type I Hypersensitivity causes what 2 excessive responses to Ag's?
- *IgE-mediated release of histamines causing allergies and localized/ systemic anaphylaxis (release of histamine, leukotrienes etc.)
- -Allergies and systemic/locallized anaphylaxix
*-IgE-mediated (release of histamine, leukotrienes etc.) &
-Allergies and systemic/locallized anaphylaxis
are both what type of destructive immune response?
Type I Hypersensitivity.
Type II hypersensitivity causes what destructive responses to Ag's
- *IgG/IgM & complement causes cytolytic reactions &
- -blood transfusion/erythroblastosis fetalis are both what type of destructive immune response
-IgG/IgM+ complement cytolytic reactions &
-blood transfusion/erythroblastosis fetalis are both what type of destructive immune response
Type II hypersensitivity.
Type IV hypersensitivity causes what 2 destructive responses to Ag's
*Delayed CD*+ T cell-mediated immune reactions
- and CTL (cytotoxic lymphocytes) responses &
- -blood transfusion/erythroblastosis fetalis are both part of what destructive immune response
-Delayed, cell-mediated immune reactions; CD4 T cells=TH (helper T cells) and CD8 T cells=CTL (cytotoxic lymphocytes) responses &
-blood transfusion/erythroblastosis fetalis are both part of what destructive immune response
Type IV hypersensitivity
Type III hypersensitivity causes what 2 destructive responses to Ag's?
- -immune complex formation (IgG) due to excessive amounts of soluble Ag &
- -Localized excesive inflammatory responses (vasculitisblood vessels, Glomerulonephritiskidney, arthritisjoints, systemic lupus erythematosusskin)
-immune complex formation (IgG) due to excessive amounts of soluble Ag &
-Localized excesive inflammatory responses (vasculitisblood vessels, Glomerulonephritiskidney, arthritisjoints, systemic lupus erythematosusskin)
Type III hypersensitivity
An excessive response to appropriate Ag is
What does Chemotherapy mean
treatment or therapy with chenicals
antimicrobials that interfere with or destroy microbial cells
- chemicals produced by a microorganism in order to inhibit or kill another microorganism
- (used for bacteria, fungi, protozoal)
- chemical produced by nature (not microorgism) to inhibit or kill another microorganism
- (used for bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoal)
natural chemical modified before use (used for bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoal)
created in lab to inhibit or kill another microorganism (used for bacteria, virus, fungi)
inhibit organism growth
selective toxic methods to effect bacteria include through
-inhibition of cell wall synthesis by targeting pepdidoglycan synthesis.
-inhibition of protein synthesis through targetting ribosomes.
-inhibition of nucleic acid replication.
-injury to PM stability
-Inhibition of synthesis of essential metabolites.
Defects in one or more components of the immune system are either
congenital or acquired
What 4 areas do antibacterials target
- 1) cell wall
- 2) PM
- 3) protein synthesis
- 4) nucleic acid
- 5) essential metabolic pathways
How does sulfanilamide/protosil work
stops synthesis of folic acid in prokaryotes (effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive)
what does penicillin target
- stops synthesis of peptidoglycan.
- -was made in fungi (penicillium notatum). Bacteria w/peniccinase are resistant
what do broad-spectrum antibiotics target
stops protein synthesis by interfering with amino acid and codon matching.
Development of a microbial population which cannot be killed by the drug is known as
3 ways microbes destroy or bypass the drug?
- 1) change or destroy antimicrobial
- 2) transport them out of cell
- 3) change the structure of a binding site.
2 ways microbes develop resistance to antibiotics
mutations and gene transfer from 1 microbacterium to another.
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