1.10 Neuroendocrine interactions
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What's the purpose of the endocrine system
Regulate bodily functions
What does endocrine system use to send messages from one organ to another?
What does hormonal stimulation cause in a cell?
A change in cell metabolism
Can the cell regulate the amount of change that hormones has on it? How?
- Yes, by giving off a signal which indicates the desired change has occurred
- *signal travel back via blood to endocrine gland
What's the linear travel that hormones (signals) travel between multiple levels
Hypothalamus releases hormone to pituitary gland. Pituitary gland releases its hormones into blood so they can travel to endocrine gland. From the gland to target organ. Target organ will experience changes in metabolism due to receiving the signal (hormones )
What are hormones made from? (2)
Amino acid based Hormones) Peptide (3)
**can be either of these 3
Amino acid based Hormones) proteins
1 or more polypeptide chains
Amino acid based Hormones) glycoprotein
protein + sugar
Amino acid based Hormones) example of amino acid derivative ?
Lipid based hormones) steroids (3)
-hormones from adrenal cortex
What's significant feature that steroids have?
Lipid based hormones) 2 types
eicosanoids and steroids
Lipid based hormones) what are eicosanoids ?
20 carbon lipids
Lipid based hormones) Eicosanoids : 2 types of eicosanoids
Lipid based hormones) Eicosanoids : Leukotrienes
Found in areas of inflammation
Lipid based hormones) Eicosanoids : Prostaglandins
Found in areas where smooth muscle
Target cell response to hormones) effectiveness of hormone action depends on...(3)
-target cell receptors
-cellular transduction mechanism
effectiveness of hormone action depends on: target cell receptors
How many receptors does the cell have to receive the hormones ?
effectiveness of hormone action depends on: hormone concentration
- Hormones concentration in the bloodstream
- *is it a few or a lot?
- **few=likely chance they won't bind bc they have to travel such a long way that they may be degraded before they get to receptors
effectiveness of hormone action depends on: cellular transduction mechanism
- The target cell has to respond to hormones
- *receptors have to bind with hormone to begin a trasnduction
Where are the specific receptors located?
- On membrane or within cell cytoplasm
- *hormones traveling in bloodstream look for specific receptors
Affinity of receptors?
Goodness of fit between hormones and receptors. If yes, they a chemical interaction will occur and change of metabolism will occur
Hormone concentration: high concentration
Likely to bind because there are so many
Hormones concentration: low concetration
Less likely to bind
What do number of receptors dictate?
Whether or not there will be binding
Number of receptors ) upregulation
Increase number of receptors
Number of receptors ) down regulation
Decrease number of receptors
Hormones affect : (6)
-growth and development
Hormone affect: cell metabolism
Hormone affect: reproduction
Hormone affect: growth and development (3)
Hormone affect: protection (2)
Glucocorticoids and epinephrine
Hormone affect: fluid/ecltrolyte balance
Hormone affect: nutrient balance
- Hormones of digestion and absorption
5 types of cellular changes
-alter membrane permeability
-synthesis of proteins
-enzyme activation or inhibition
-stimulation of mitosis
How do the message get translated (transducer) from the hormone to the intracellular machinery?
Cells use secondary messengers systems
What are second messaenger systems ?
They are second in line to take message from membrane receptor to the inside the cell
What can play the role of a second messenger?
A common ion like calcium or special like cAMP or IP3
Translation of hormone message to alter cellular metabolism
What transduction mechanism process do protein hormones use?
PKA/cAMP and PKC/IP3 systems
What is the result of PKC/IP3 & PK/cAMP systems?
What type of hormone uses direct gene activation ?
- steroid hormones
- *lipid based
Why don't lipid based hormones interact with receptors in plasma membrane?
They are able to pass through PM because they are lipids
What the linear pathway for steroid hormone activation (3)
-steroid hormone stimulus
- -binds intracellular receptor
- *bc it is able to permeate through the PM
-may cause direct DNA binding for protein synthesis
Duration of hormone action) what is this usually referred to as by?
Duration of hormone action) what is half life?
Amount of time for half of level of hormone to ddegrade or to be used
Duration of hormone action) prohormone
- Inactive hormone till part of it is cleaved
Duration of hormone action) plasma hormone binding proteins
Some hormones are carried by protein such as albumin to protect the hormones from being degraded as it travels to the target
Linear pathway of hormone release
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