1.10 Neuroendocrine interactions

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  1. What's the purpose of the endocrine system
    Regulate bodily functions
  2. What does endocrine system use to send messages from one organ to another?
  3. What does hormonal stimulation cause in a cell?
    A change in cell metabolism
  4. Can the cell regulate the amount of change that hormones has on it? How?
    • Yes, by giving off a signal which indicates the desired change has occurred
    • *signal travel back via blood to endocrine gland
    • **feedback
  5. What's the linear travel that hormones (signals) travel between multiple levels
    Hypothalamus releases hormone to pituitary gland. Pituitary gland releases its hormones into blood so they can travel to endocrine gland. From the gland to target organ. Target organ will experience changes in metabolism due to receiving the signal (hormones )
  6. What are hormones made from? (2)
    -amino acids

  7. Amino acid based Hormones) Peptide (3)



    **can be either of these 3
  8. Amino acid based Hormones) proteins
    1 or more polypeptide chains
  9. Amino acid based Hormones) glycoprotein
    protein + sugar
  10. Amino acid based Hormones) example of amino acid derivative ?
    Thyroid hormone
  11. Lipid based hormones) steroids (3)


    -hormones from adrenal cortex
  12. What's significant feature that steroids have?
    Cholesterol backbone
  13. Lipid based hormones) 2 types
    eicosanoids and steroids
  14. Lipid based hormones) what are eicosanoids ?
    20 carbon lipids
  15. Lipid based hormones) Eicosanoids : 2 types of eicosanoids

  16. Lipid based hormones) Eicosanoids : Leukotrienes
    Found in areas of inflammation
  17. Lipid based hormones) Eicosanoids : Prostaglandins
    Found in areas where smooth muscle
  18. Target cell response to hormones) effectiveness of hormone action depends on...(3)
    -target cell receptors

    -hormone concetration

    -cellular transduction mechanism
  19. effectiveness of hormone action depends on: target cell receptors
    How many receptors does the cell have to receive the hormones ?
  20. effectiveness of hormone action depends on: hormone concentration
    • Hormones concentration in the bloodstream
    • *is it a few or a lot?
    • **few=likely chance they won't bind bc they have to travel such a long way that they may be degraded before they get to receptors
  21. effectiveness of hormone action depends on: cellular transduction mechanism
    • The target cell has to respond to hormones
    • *receptors have to bind with hormone to begin a trasnduction
  22. Where are the specific receptors located?
    • On membrane or within cell cytoplasm
    • *hormones traveling in bloodstream look for specific receptors
  23. Affinity of receptors?
    Goodness of fit between hormones and receptors. If yes, they a chemical interaction will occur and change of metabolism will occur
  24. Hormone concentration: high concentration
    Likely to bind because there are so many
  25. Hormones concentration: low concetration
    Less likely to bind
  26. What do number of receptors dictate?
    Whether or not there will be binding
  27. Number of receptors ) upregulation
    Increase number of receptors
  28. Number of receptors ) down regulation
    Decrease number of receptors
  29. Hormones affect : (6)
    -cell metabolism


    -growth and development


    -fluid/electrolyte balance

    -nutrient balance
  30. Hormone affect: cell metabolism
    Thyroid hormone
  31. Hormone affect: reproduction
    Sex steroids
  32. Hormone affect: growth and development (3)
    -sex steroids


    -growth hormone
  33. Hormone affect: protection (2)
    Glucocorticoids and epinephrine
  34. Hormone affect: fluid/ecltrolyte balance
  35. Hormone affect: nutrient balance
    • Hormones of digestion and absorption
    • *insulin
  36. 5 types of cellular changes
    -alter membrane permeability

    -synthesis of proteins

    -enzyme activation or inhibition

    -secretory activity

    -stimulation of mitosis
  37. How do the message get translated (transducer) from the hormone to the intracellular machinery?
    Cells use secondary messengers systems
  38. What are second messaenger systems ?
    They are second in line to take message from membrane receptor to the inside the cell
  39. What can play the role of a second messenger?
    A common ion like calcium or special like cAMP or IP3
  40. Transduction mechanisms
    Translation of hormone message to alter cellular metabolism
  41. What transduction mechanism process do protein hormones use?
    PKA/cAMPĀ  and PKC/IP3 systems
  42. What is the result of PKC/IP3 & PK/cAMP systems?
    protein phosphorylation
  43. What type of hormone uses direct gene activation ?
    • steroid hormones
    • *lipid based
  44. Why don't lipid based hormones interact with receptors in plasma membrane?
    They are able to pass through PM because they are lipids
  45. What the linear pathway for steroid hormone activation (3)
    -steroid hormone stimulus

    • -binds intracellular receptor
    • *bc it is able to permeate through the PM

    -may cause direct DNA binding for protein synthesis
  46. Duration of hormone action) what is this usually referred to as by?
    Half life
  47. Duration of hormone action) what is half life?
    Amount of time for half of level of hormone to ddegrade or to be used
  48. Duration of hormone action) prohormone
    • Inactive hormone till part of it is cleaved
    • *insulin
  49. Duration of hormone action) plasma hormone binding proteins
    Some hormones are carried by protein such as albumin to protect the hormones from being degraded as it travels to the target
  50. Linear pathway of hormone release

    -pit gland

    -endocrine gland

    -target organ
Card Set:
1.10 Neuroendocrine interactions
2015-02-06 16:44:48

Neuroendocrine Interactions
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