Prehistory of NA Test 1 Lecture 1

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Prehistory of NA Test 1 Lecture 1
2015-02-17 12:22:31
Pre history NA

Prehistory Test 1
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  1. Christopher Columbus
    ☀ often credited with discovering the new world. He did not discover the new world.

    • ☀ He made the journey, but was not the
    • first person to discover North America

    • ☀ introduced to Europeans that these
    • lands existed and were untouched.

    • ☀ He was interested in finding a passage to
    • Asia. He argued that he discovered the East Indies (Asia).

    ☀ His discovery initiated a new era of maritime exploration where Europeans began to explore the seas. They were very interested in mapping the world

    • ☀ In Book of Privileges He argued that
    • the Spanish Crown Should give him 10% for his discovery

    • ☀ He suffered from a lot of medical
    • complications
  2. Norse Exploration in North America
    • ☀We dont typically talk about Norse travel to the new World.
    • ☀Just because it wasnt written doesnt mean other people were not there.
    • ☀Some documents are spotty, but it was a testament of Norse Presence.
    • ☀☀☀ Notable people:
    • Erik the Red (Greenland 982 AD)
    • Bjarni Herjólfsson (986 AD)
    • Leif Eriksson (1000 AD)
    • Thorfinn Karlsefni (1010 AD)
  3. Norse Exploration in North America

    Erik the Red (Greenland 982 AD)
    • followed in tradition of his father who was banished from Norway.
    • Red was outlawed and banned for killing a lot of people in icelandic communities.
    • He searched to sea for a new place to stay and found greenland
  4. Norse Exploration in North America

    Bjarni Herjólfsson (986 AD)
    • set off from iceland to visit Erik the Red
    • He set off course and found lush forests, but refused to stop.
    • Eventually he got back on course and arrived on Greenland.
  5. Norse Exploration in North America

    Leif Eriksson (1000 AD)
    • Son of Erik the Red
    • Sent to Christianize the settlers of Greenland
    • Traveled West because of Bjarni's discoveries
  6. Norse Exploration in North America

    Thorfinn Karlsefni (1010 AD)
    Sailed up and down too following previous Norse Explorer Leif Eriksson's discovery
  7. The North American Settlers
    • ☀ There had been several migrations to the new world.
    • ☀ Different groups of people coming at different times.
    • ☀ There is a lot of competing theories about the people who first came and populated the continent
  8. Amerigo Vespucci
    • ☀ Italian Explorer
    • ☀ Attributed 4 voyages, only 2 were credited
    • ☀ some speculation if the others definitively happened
    • ☀ America was named after Amerigo Vespucci
    • ☀because he was first person to recognize North and South America as distinct continents and not Asia
    • ☀ Named America bc of his Latin name form -  Americus
  9. Martin Waldseemüller
    • Cartogropher
    • published the 1st map with name America printed on It for the New World and in Amerigo Vespucci's Honor.

    People don’t Really give detailed info Back then. We take in to account maritime exploration by Europeans.
  10. European Exploration:

    European point of view on the matter:
    • ☀ Things needed to be reconfigured
    • ☀Questions were being raised about the nature of differences and the idea about why Europeans were technologically advanced.
  11. The Age of Exploration:
    The discovery of the Americas immediately required some explaining
    Europeans took a religious scope and biblical origin to people when explaining origin of indiginous people of the new world

    questioned that without maritime technology, how and why were these people there

    and why cultures and people looked and behaved differently  across the globe.
  12. Captain James Cook (1728-1779)
    • junior officer in Royal Navy
    • rose to cartography
    • tasked to sail around pacific to establish charts, record ecology, resources, people and their outlook.
    • there were rigorous efforts to map the world, but also to describe it and these were the first attempts
    • came in to contact with separated regions
    • such as Rapa Nui (Easter Islands)
    • realized that tahiti and New Zealand had different languages and tattoos, but still familiar in some sort.
    • first to propose that the pacific was settled from Asia
    • Unsuccessful at finding passage from pacific to atlantic for european convenience
    • came in to contact with eskimoas and notably recognized as saying..."there is great reason to believe that all these regions are of the same extraction." ....or related in some way
  13. Temporal Lacunae
    (The Black Hole; gap)
    • important to know that most attempts, questions, and observations regarding the explanation of cultural differences, origins, and socio-technological developments were made before C14 dating
    • there was no access for dating anything before this
    • so our understanding is accumulated knowledge
  14. Charles Lyell 1797-1875
    • A uniformitarianist
    • used a geological approach stating that certain forces such as wind rain and erosion shape the natural world around us
    • Geological forces observed in the present are the same as those acting in the past.
    • introduced concept of deep time - geological events are more time scaled than human lives.
    • james hutton came up with these ideas, lyell rediscovered it
  15. Karl Von Linne (carolus Linneaus)
    • 1707-1778
    • Father of taxonomy
    • Swedish botonist and zoologist
    • created the taxonomic system (naming of organisms) that remains today
    • responsible for way animals, plants, humans, and primates are grouped
    • classified humans into 4 subcategories:
    • homoeuropeanus, homoafricanus, homoasianus, homoamericanus.
    • this caused problems making people think of people in subcategories
    • the effects of this are not entirely removed from collective conscious
  16. Charles darwin
    • 1809-1882
    • people became aware that things dont stay the same; he did not come up with the theory that things evolve
    • instead he solved the issue of mutability and  came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection
    • applied idea of natural selection to a sociological perspective
    • all living things have variations and no two species are alike and nor two species in that category are alike
  17. Unilineal Evolution:

    Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)                              
    • Unilineal evolutionist
    • Coined the phrase "Survival of the Fittest" - even though Darwin is usually associated with it
  18. Unilineal evolution

    Lewis Henry Morgan  (1818-1881)                 
    Edward Tylor (1832-1917)
    • Unilineal Evolutionists
    • Social Evolution thinkers
  19. Unilineal Evolution
    • societies evolve from simple to complex
    • an attempt to explain differences among people