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primary organs of stallions repro tract
What do the testicles produce?
What are the male sex cells?
Where are the testes located?
What does the spermatic cord do?
suspend the testicles above the abdomen
What is found in the spermatic cord?
- blood vessels
- cremaster muscle
What is the septum scroti?
tissue that separates the two testes
What is the tunica albuginea?
fibrous capsule surrounding each testicle
Testicles are divided into:
several lobules called lobuli testis that house seminiferous tubules
What is found in seminiferous tubules?
primary germ cells that eventually become viable spermatozoa
What is spermatogensis?
- sperm production
- the change from a germ cell to a spermatid (immature sperm cell)
3 phases of spermatogenesis:
How long does it take sperm to develop and mature?
Where does spermatogensis begin?
in the seminiferous tubules, where germ cells reproduce by meiosis
spermatids travel from:
seminiferous tubules to the epididymis
as the spermatid migrates, what happens?
- gains maturity
- loses cytoplasm
- gains a tail (flagellum)
Where does final maturation of sperm occur?
What is the epididymis?
long U-shaped structure attached to the top of each testicle
What is the vas deferens?
duct that carries mature sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
What do the accessory sex glands do?
secrete seminal fluid into the vas deferens, forming semen
What are the accessory sex glands of the stallion?
- seminal vesicles
- the ampulla
- prostate gland
What do seminal vesicles do?
secrete a large portion of seminal fluid, which contains high levels of protein and potassium
What is the ampulla?
- enlarged glandular portion of the vas deferens
- secretes a large amount of fluid very similar to that of the seminal vesicles
What does the prostate gland do?
produces alkaline fluid that contains proteins that can break up proteins, citric acid and zinc
What do bulbourethral glands do?
produce a clear fluid that flushes the urethra of urine and bacteria before ejaculation
What is the purpose of semen?
- carries sperm
- exits the body through the urethra
What is the path of a sperm cell?
- from the seminiferous tubules
- to the epididymis
- to the vas deferens
- to the urethra and out of the body
How long is a colt unfertile after birth?
18 to 24 months
When do testes begin to grow and develop rapidly?
at 18 months
What is the male ovulatory organ?
Where is the penis found?
in the sheath or prepuce
Where is the urethra found?
within the penis
Why is it uncommon for a hore to have prostatitis?
it doesnt completely circle the urethra
Is the prostrate important in the horse?
What is testicular torsion?
- When a testicle was twisted
- causes inflammation, necrosis, abnormal blood flow/clotting
- can cause shrinking or atrophy
Why are crytorchids a problem?
- causes overheating of sperm and hormonal problems
- usually less fertile
- it is hereditary