Stallion Repro

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Stallion Repro
2015-02-05 15:28:46

equine repro
Show Answers:

  1. primary organs of stallions repro tract
  2. What do the testicles produce?
    • hormones
    • sperm cells
  3. What are the male sex cells?
    • sperm cells
    • spermatozoa
  4. Where are the testes located?
  5. What does the spermatic cord do?
    suspend the testicles above the abdomen
  6. What is found in the spermatic cord?
    • nerves
    • blood vessels
    • cremaster muscle
  7. What is the septum scroti?
    tissue that separates the two testes
  8. What is the tunica albuginea?
    fibrous capsule surrounding each testicle
  9. Testicles are divided into:
    several lobules called lobuli testis that house seminiferous tubules
  10. What is found in seminiferous tubules?
    primary germ cells that eventually become viable spermatozoa
  11. What is spermatogensis?
    • sperm production
    • the change from a germ cell to a spermatid (immature sperm cell)
  12. 3 phases of spermatogenesis:
    • spermatocytogenesis
    • meiosis
    • spermiogenesis
  13. How long does it take sperm to develop and mature?
    65 days
  14. Where does spermatogensis begin?
    in the seminiferous tubules, where germ cells reproduce by meiosis
  15. spermatids travel from:
    seminiferous tubules to the epididymis 
  16. as the spermatid migrates, what happens?
    • gains maturity
    • loses cytoplasm
    • gains a tail (flagellum)
  17. Where does final maturation of sperm occur?
  18. What is the epididymis?
    long U-shaped structure attached to the top of each testicle
  19. What is the vas deferens?
    duct that carries mature sperm from the epididymis to the urethra 
  20. What do the accessory sex glands do?
    secrete seminal fluid into the vas deferens, forming semen
  21. What are the accessory sex glands of the stallion?
    • seminal vesicles
    • the ampulla
    • prostate gland
  22. What do seminal vesicles do?
    secrete a large portion of seminal fluid, which contains high levels of protein and potassium
  23. What is the ampulla?
    • enlarged glandular portion of the vas deferens
    • secretes a large amount of fluid very similar to that of the seminal vesicles
  24. What does the prostate gland do?
    produces alkaline fluid that contains proteins that can break up proteins, citric acid and zinc
  25. What do bulbourethral glands do?
    produce a clear fluid that flushes the urethra of urine and bacteria before ejaculation
  26. What is the purpose of semen?
    • carries sperm
    • exits the body through the urethra
  27. What is the path of a sperm cell?
    • from the seminiferous tubules
    • to the epididymis
    • to the vas deferens
    • to the urethra and out of the body
  28. How long is a colt unfertile after birth?
    18 to 24 months
  29. When do testes begin to grow and develop rapidly?
    at 18 months
  30. What is the male ovulatory organ?
  31. Where is the penis found?
    in the sheath or prepuce
  32. Where is the urethra found?
    within the penis
  33. Why is it uncommon for a hore to have prostatitis?
    it doesnt completely circle the urethra
  34. Is the prostrate important in the horse?
    not really
  35. What is testicular torsion?
    • When a testicle was twisted
    • causes inflammation, necrosis, abnormal blood flow/clotting
    • can cause shrinking or atrophy
  36. Why are crytorchids a problem?
    • causes overheating of sperm and hormonal problems
    • usually less fertile
    • it is hereditary